Waste Water Management

Waste Water Management Water, food and energy securities are emerging as increasingly important and vital issues for India and the world. Most of the river basins in India and elsewhere are closing or closed and experiencing moderate to severe water shortages, brought on by the simultaneous effects of agricultural growth, industrialization and urbanization. Current and … Read more

Industrial development and Economic reforms in India : Major changes in industrial policy, its impact on industrial growth

The Indian Government had undertaken industrial policy reforms since 1980, but the most radical reforms have occurred since 1991, after the severe economic crisis in fiscal year 1990-91. These reforms mainly aim  at enhancing the efficiency and international competitiveness in Indian industry. India’s industrial policy of 1991 towards liberalisation, deregulation, market orientation has been hailed … Read more

Financial and Banking sector reforms

The Banking System at the time of independence was largely urban oriented and remained out of reach of rural population. Commercial Banks mostly confined their lending to trade, commerce and industry and treated agriculture as a non priority. Security- oriented lending was the order of the day. Banks did not pay any attention to the … Read more

Liberalization

The leading economists of the country differ in their opinion about the socioeconomic and ecological consequences of the policy of liberalisation.Liberalization has led to several positive and negative effects on Indian economy and society. Some of the consequences of liberalisation have been briefly described here: 1. Increase in the Direct Foreign Investment: The policy of liberalisation … Read more

Infrastructural development and issues

Advance Infrastructure Good quality infrastructure is critical to sustainable growth, especially for rural areas. As over 60 per cent of the population lives in rural areas, with low levels of per capital income, there is need to impart greater attention in improving rural infrastructure. Currently the rural infrastructure is inadequate to support over 600,000 villages. … Read more

Poverty and Unemployment

The World Bank defines poverty in absolute terms. The bank defines extreme poverty as living on less than US$1.90 per day> (PPP), and moderate poverty as less than $3.10 a day. Types of Poverty Absolute poverty measures poverty in relation to the amount of money necessary to meet basic needs such as food, clothing, and … Read more

Regional Imbalances and Migration

Regional imbalances and income inequalitiies in India: Steps taken by the Government to reduce it. Regional imbalance is the disparity in economic and social development of two regions. One region/city/area is stronger than another region/city/area. Regions develop when investments are made to set up industries, service sectors, educational institutions, health care facilities etc. Income inequality is the unequal distribution of … Read more

Urban issues, Urban development (social and economic infrastructure) and Housing for Low Income Groups. 

  Urban issues, Urban development (social and economic infrastructure) and Housing for Low Income Groups.    Urbanization is the growth in population residing in urban areas, due to both growth in population of current residents and net migration into urban areas. It also encompasses a transformation of the erstwhile rural areas into ‘urban’ areas through … Read more

Issues of Direct and Indirect Subsidy for farm sector and other social sectors. 

  Issues of Direct and Indirect Subsidy for farm sector and other social sectors.  Subsidy is one of the powerful fiscal instruments, besides taxes and others, by which the objective of growth and social justice may be achieved.   Subsidies alter relative prices and budget constraints and thereby affect decisions concerning production, consumption and allocation … Read more

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