. Monolithic pillars and capitols made during this period are prime example of Mauryan art. The important places where the pillars have been found are Basarah-Bakhira, Lauriya-Nandangarh, Rampurva, Sankisa and Sarnath. These pillars were carved in two types of stone viz. the spotted red and white sandstone from the region of Mathura and buff-coloured fine grained hard sandstone usually with small black spots quarried inthe Chunar near Varanasi.The uniformity of style in the pillar capitals suggests that they were all sculpted bycraftsmen from the same region. Bull capitol of Rampurva, Lion Capitol of Lauriya-Nandangarh, and Sarnath Capitol, found near Varanasi, ... Read more
When Napoleon named Joseph Bonaparte King of Spain and its colonies, which included Venezuela, Bolívar joined the resistance movement. The resistance group based in Caracas gained independence in 1810, and Bolívar traveled to Britain on a diplomatic mission. The fight for control of Caracas, Venezuela and most of South American continued on back home. Finally, Bolívar returned to Venezuela and began a campaign to wrest control of that country from the Spanish. He and his followers invaded Venezuela on May 14, 1813; this marked the beginning of his “Campaña Admirable” (Admirable Campaign), which resulted in the formation of the Venezuelan ... Read more
Japan was the only country to remain outside colonial clutches. Japanese military generals called ‘shoguns’ ruled Japan for more than 200 years and emperor was mere figurehead. Japanese society was almost feudal and it was largely disconnected from the wider world. Japan awakened to the modern development in middle of 19th century only when its very independence was threatened. Within a few decades, it not only warded off that threat, but even became a force to be reckon with. In 1853, Commodore Perry led a fleet to Japan and threatened it with an ultimatum. Japan had to open two of ... Read more
Carbonari, a secret society was formed by people to liberate Italy from clutches of foreigners. Rulers of Naples and Piedmont also encouraged liberal tendencies. But these efforts were curbed by Metternich. French revolutions of 1830 and 1848 sparked feelings of liberation, but the smaller states couldn’t coordinate and Austria again suppressed movements and movement was divided into – moderates and revolutionaries (under Mazzini). Mazzini joined Carbonari at young age. He formed ‘Young Italy’ movement to liberate Italy on line of Carbonari and setup Republic which was destroyed by Napoleon lll. He tried to bring unification multiple times by revolts especially ... Read more
. Napoleon’s fetish for power led him to zenith and then to his doom. He made some terrible blunders like – Continental policy, invasion on Russia, attack on Spanish sovereignty and so on. The very economic system he was supposed to boost was badly damaged by wars. His European Wars hit the already developing France badly. Money was diverted from development to wars. Continental policy which aimed at negating the naval supremacy of Britain led to economic war between the two worsening the economic situation of France. After being defeated in direct Battle of Trafalgar Square, he tried to impose ... Read more
DMPQ- . “American Revolution was a Natural and Even Expected Event in The History of Colonial People Who Had Come of Age.” Comment.
. Instead of being a radical abrupt change, the American Revolution was a culmination of evolutionary changes that resulted in an evolved way of life. With the social, political and economic spheres, the change occurred gradually and remained largely unnoticed. For example, in Political sphere, the 13 colonies already had a certain degree of independence, but they yearned to be completely free from the tyranny of the British overlords. Each colony had its own local assembly which enacted laws on local matters. Economically, also situation of America was better. In war, there was no class confrontation as it happens in ... Read more
DMPQ- . Throw light on the economic and political activities of Jaiprakash Narayan’s socialist party after independence.
. Of all the political parties that emerged immediately after independence the Socialist Party held the greatest promise. In Jayaprakash Narayan it had a leader next only to Jawaharlal Nehru in mass popularity. It had also several other brilliant leaders, for example, Acharya Narendra Dev, Achyut Patwardhan, Asoka Mehta, Dr Rammanohar Lohia and S.M. Joshi. However, the first problem the Socialists faced—and this was a problem they continued to face to the end—was that of their relationship with Congress. The Socialist Party had been born in 1934 and had remained since then a part of Congress, though it had its ... Read more
Answer. In 1939 the Viceroy, Lord Linlithgow, declared India a party to war without consulting Indian political leaders or the elected provincial representatives. This caused considerable resentment in India and provoked the resignation en masse of elected Congress Party Provincial Governments in 1939 (which were elected in 1937), giving rise to the prospect of public revolt and political disorder in India. Government tried to reconcile with August Offer, but that was rejected and instead Individual Satyagraha was launched. News that ‘Atlantic Charter’ won’t be applicable to Indians (which was signed between US and Britain and provided the freedom to people ... Read more
. Nehru died without naming a political heir and dissension and factionalism had become a part of Congress. Major contenders of PM post were Morarji Desai – a honest sound administrator, but unpopular for being self-righteous, inflexible and even right winger; and Lal Bahdur Shastri – a mild, tactful, likeable and personally incorruptible. The succession happened under a group formed in 1963 collectively known as Syndicate headed by K Kamraj the then party president, S K Patil, Neelam Sanjeev Reddy etc. They didn’t wanted Desai to be PM for his apparent unpopularity and after internal discussions, Desai gracefully backed out ... Read more
Amidst all the confusion over war and Congress’ dilemma of joining the war, Muslim League passed a resolution in its 1940 session declaring that ‘Muslims are not a minority, but a separate nation’. This gave rise to ‘Two nation Theory’. It called for the creation of ‘independent states’ for Muslims in British India. The constituent units of these states were to be autonomous and sovereign (The name ‘Pakistan’ had been suggested in 1933 by a Cambridge scholar Rehmat Ali, but was not formally announced in this resolution). On March 23, A.K. Fazul Haq, the Chief Minister of Bengal, moved the ... Read more