MPPSC Mains Notes

Remote sensing- GIS and its application

    Remote Sensing Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation. In current usage, the term “remote sensing” generally refers to the use of satellite- or aircraft-based sensor technologies to detect and classify objects on Earth, including on the surface and in the atmosphere and oceans, based on propagated signals. Remote sensing is used in numerous fields, including geography, land surveying and most Earth Science disciplines for example, hydrology, ecology, oceanography, glaciology, geology.It also has military, intelligence, commercial, economic, planning, and ... Read more


Biotechnology is defined as the industrial application of living organisms and their biological processes such as biochemistry, microbiology, and genetic engineering, in order to make best use of the microorganisms for the benefit of mankind. Modern biotechnology provides breakthrough products and technologies to combat debilitating and rare diseases, reduce our environmental footprint, feed the hungry, use less and cleaner energy, and have safer, cleaner and more efficient industrial manufacturing processes. Biotechnology began in the 1970s after the development of genetic engineering that allowed scientists to modify the genetic material of living cells. Genetic engineering is the manipulation of DNA molecules ... Read more

Conventional and Non Conventional Sources of Energy

Conventional and Non Conventional Sources of Energy Main Sources of Energy: The sources of energy are of following types: Conventional Sources of Energy: These sources of energy are also called non renewable sources. These sources of energy are in limited quantity except hydro-electric power. (a) Coal and Lignite: Coal is the major source of energy. Coal deposits in India are 148790 million tonnes. Total lignite reserves found at Neyveli are 3300 million tonnes. In 1950-51, annual production of coal was 32 million tonnes. In 2005-06, annual production of coal was 343 million tonnes. Lignite production was 20.44 million tonnes in 2005-06. ... Read more


National Income The study of National Income is important because of the following reasons: To see the economic development of the country. To assess the developmental objectives. To know the contribution of the various sectors to National Income. Internationally some countries are wealthy, some countries are not wealthy and some countries are in-between. Under such circumstances, it would be difficult to evaluate the performance of an economy. Performance of an economy is directly proportionate to the amount of goods and services produced in an economy. Measuring national income is also important to chalk out the future course of the economy. ... Read more

Indian Agricultural Research Council The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) is an autonomous organisation under the Department of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE), Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare , Government of India. Formerly known as Imperial Council of Agricultural Research, it was established on 16 July 1929 as a registered society under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 in pursuance of the report of the Royal Commission on Agriculture. The ICAR has its headquarters at New Delhi. The Council is the apex body for co-ordinating, guiding and managing research and education in agriculture including horticulture, fisheries and animal sciences ... Read more

Human Rights Commission

  Establishment of Human Right Commission The National Human Rights Commission is a statutory (and not a constitutional) body. It was established in 1993 under a legislation enacted by the Parliament, namely, the Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993. This Act was amended in 2006. The commission is the watchdog of human rights in the country, that is, the rights relating to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the Constitution or embodied in the international covenants and enforceable by courts in India. The specific objectives of the establishment of the commission are : To strengthen the ... Read more

Union Public Service Commissions-UPSC

Union Public Service Commissions Public Service Commissions for the Union as per Article-315 Subject to the provisions of this article, there shall be a Public Service Commission for the Union Any such law as aforesaid may contain such incidental and consequential provisions as may be necessary or desirable for giving effect to the purposes of the law. The Public Service Commission for the Union, if requested so to do by the Governor of a State, may, with the approval of the President, agree to serve all or any of the needs of the State. References in this Constitution to the ... Read more

United Nations and its specialized agencies

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization established on 24 October 1945 to promote international cooperation. It was founded to replace the League of Nations following World War II and to prevent another conflict. When it was founded, the UN had 51 Member States; there are now 193. Most nations are members of the UN and send diplomats to the headquarters to hold meetings and make decisions about global issues.   The UN system is based on five principal organs: The General Assembly, The Security Council, The International Court of Justice. The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), and A sixth principal organ, the Trusteeship Council, suspended operations in 1994   Four of the five principal organs are ... Read more

MPPSC Mains Notes- Paper 1,2,3 and 4

Dear all we have launched a program for MPPSC Mains PDF and Printed Notes. The details of modules are:- Paper-1 Sec-A (174 pg) Sec-B (150 pg) Paper-2 Sec-A (296 pg) Sec-B (101 pg) Paper-3 Sec-A (502 pg) Sec-B (168 pg) Paper-4 202 Pages Get PDF or Printed Notes  

Soil: Physical, chemical and biological properties

Soil consists of rock and sediment that has been modified by physical and chemical interaction with organic material and rainwater, over time, to produce a substrate that can support the growth of plants.” Soils are an important natural resource.  They represent the  interface between the lithosphere and the biosphere – as soils provide nutrients for plants.  Soils consist of weathered rock plus organic material that comes from decaying plants and animals.  The same factors that control weathering control soil formation with the exception, that soils also requires the input of organic material as some form of Carbon. Soils have many ... Read more