Metals and Non-metals

Metal   In chemistry, a metal is an element that readily forms positive ions (cations) and has metallic bonds. Metals are sometimes described as a lattice of positive ions surrounded by a cloud of delocalized electrons. The metals are one of the three groups of elements as distinguished by their ionization and bonding properties, along … Read more

Carbon and its compounds

Get Complete Prelims PDF Checkout Added to cart Carbon is the common element found in all known form of life. Structure of all living organism contains carbon. Carbon present in living organism even after death. Coal, petroleum and its products are compounds of carbon. Carbon is an element and a non-metal. Symbol of Carbon = … Read more

Molecules and Atom

Molecules Molecule, a group of two or more atoms that form the smallest identifiable unit into which a pure substance can be divided and still retain the composition and chemical properties of that substance. The division of a sample of a substance into progressively smaller parts produces no change in either its composition or its chemical properties until parts … Read more

Structure of atom

Atomic Structure In 1897 J.J. Thomson discovered electron as a constituent of atom. He determined that an electron had a negative charge and had very little mass as compared to that of the atom. Since an atom was found to be electrically neutral it was inferred that some source of positive charge must be present … Read more

Chemical Reaction

The rate of a chemical reaction can be defined as the amount of the reaction which occurs in unit time. The rate of a reaction is measured by choosing certain properties of the reaction which will indicate how far the reaction has gone, and whose magnitude can be observed with time without disturbing the reaction. … Read more

Acids, Bases and Salts.

Acid An acid is a substance which forms H+ ions as the only positive ion in aqueous solution. Examples:- Hydrochloric acid dissolved in water forms H+ and Cl– ions HCl —> H+ + Cl–   Sulphuric acid dissolved in water forms H+ and SO42- ions H2SO4 —>2H+ + SO42-   Nitric acid forms H+ and NO3– ions when dissolved in water HNO3 —> H+ + NO3–   … Read more

Nanotechnology

Get Complete Prelims PDF Checkout Added to cart Nanotechnology relates to the technology of rearranging and processing of atoms and molecules to fabricate material to Nano specifications such as nano meters, the technology will enable scientist and engineers to see and manipulate matter at the molecular level atom by atom create new structure with fundamentally … Read more

Issues of Direct and Indirect Subsidy for farm sector and other social sectors. 

Get Complete Prelims PDF Checkout Added to cart   Issues of Direct and Indirect Subsidy for farm sector and other social sectors.  Subsidy is one of the powerful fiscal instruments, besides taxes and others, by which the objective of growth and social justice may be achieved.   Subsidies alter relative prices and budget constraints and … Read more

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