Ozone is a gas that occurs both in the Earth’s upper atmosphere and at ground level. Ozone can be “good” or “bad” for your health and the environment, depending on its location in the atmosphere. Ground-level or “bad” ozone is not emitted directly into the air, but is created by chemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the presence of sunlight. Emissions from industrial facilities and electric utilities, motor vehicle exhaust, gasoline vapors, and chemical solvents are some of the major sources of NOx and VOC. At ground level, ozone is a harmful pollutant. ... Read more
A tropical deciduous forest would grow in a place that is warm all year and the trees would lose their leaves at some point every year. Main characteristics of tropical deciduous forests are: These are the most wide spread forests of India. They are also known as the monsoon forests. They spread over areas of annual rainfall ranging between 200 cm and 70 cm. Trees of these forests shed their leaves for about six to eight weeks in dry season. Every species has its own time of shedding leaves. Therefore, the forest does not appear leafless at any time of ... Read more
Joint Forest Management (JFM) is an approach wherein state forest departments support local forest dwelling and forest fringe communities to protect and manage forests and share the costs and benefits from the forests with them. The Government of India consolidated the intervention on participatory forest management through the National Forest Policy, 1988, and then through enabling guidelines in 1990 on Joint Forest Management (JFM). This approach attempts to utilize traditional forest conservation knowledge of local rural communities for protecting and managing forests while simultaneously helping these communities to meet their subsistence needs of fuel wood, fodder, other non-timber forest produce, ... Read more
Single-use plastics, often also referred to as disposable plastics, are commonly used for plastic packaging7 and include items intended to be used only once before they are thrown away or recycled. These include, among other items, grocery bags, food packaging, bottles, straws, containers, cups and cutlery. Figure 1.1 introduces the main polymers used to manufacture singleuse plastic items and indicates their most common applications. We produce roughly 300 million tons of plastic each year and half of it is disposable! World-wide only 10-13% of plastic items are recycled. The nature of petroleum based disposable plastic makes it difficult to recycle and they ... Read more
Conservation of Critical Environmental Resources – To protect and conserve critical ecological systems and resources, and invaluable natural and man-made heritage, which are essential for life-support, livelihoods, economic growth, and a broad conception of human well-being. Intergenerational Equity – To ensure judicious use of environmental resources to meet the needs and aspirations of the present and future generations. Integration of Environmental Concerns in Economic and Social Development – To integrate environmental concerns into policies, plans, programmes and projects for economic and social development. Efficiency in Environmental Resource Use – To ensure efficient use of environmental resources in the sense of ... Read more
Different methods are used for treatment of solid waste and the choice of proper method depends upon refuse characteristics, land area available and disposal cost they are as follows Incineration Compaction Pyrolysis Gasification Composting Incineration It is a controlled combustion process for burning solid wastes in presence of excess air (oxygen) at high temperature of about 1000 Degree Centigrade and above to produce gases and residue containing non-combustible material. One of the most attractive features of the incineration process is that it can be used to reduce the original volume of combustible MSW by 80– 90%. Compaction The waste is ... Read more
Organic farming is an agricultural system that works in harmony with nature. It largely excludes the use of synthetic inputs (such as fertilizers, pesticides, hormones, feed additives etc.) and rely upon crop rotation, crop residues, animal manures, off-farm organic waste, mineral grade rock additives and biological system of nutrient mobilization and plant protection. Organic farming in India has been followed since ancient times. It primarily aims at cultivating the land and raising crops in such a way, as to keep the soil alive and in good health by use of organic wastes (crop, animal and farm wastes, aquatic wastes) and ... Read more
India State of Forest Report 2019 has been prepared by Forest Survey of India (FSI). It is a biannual report. The report is prepared after mapping of forests and trees through satellite. Key highlights of the report are as follows: the forest area has increased by 3976 kilometers and the area of trees by 1212 square kilometers in two years. the three states where forest area has grown the most include Karnataka (1025 km), Andhra Pradesh (990 km) and Kerala (823 km). It has also mentioned in the report that the forest area of the northeastern states has decreased except ... Read more
DMPQ: In the last decade NGT played a great role in rendering environment justice. In light of the statement, Suggest the role of NGT in last decade.
The National Green Tribunal has been established on 18.10.2010 under the National Green Tribunal Act 2010 for effective and expeditious disposal of cases relating to environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources including enforcement of any legal right relating to environment and giving relief and compensation for damages to persons and property and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. The landmark Judgements are as: The POSCO case- NGT suspended the Odisha Government’s order for the establishment of the steel plant and it is considered as a radical step in favour of the local communities and forests. ... Read more
DMPQ: The Indian Meteorological department confirmed that this month was coldest in Delhi since 1901. What are the Possible reasons for such cold waves?
In Delhi, the average maximum temperature for December was less than 20°C until December 27. This has happened only four times in the last 118 years, and the IMD has said this month would most likely become the second coldest December for Delhi since 1901. A cold-day condition is said to prevail when the maximum temperature during the day is at least 4.5°C below normal. If the maximum temperature is at least 6.5°C below normal, it is classified as a “severe” cold day. The possible explanations of such extreme conditions are as follows: Low clouds: This extended cold spell has ... Read more