Minerals of Madhya Pradesh:-
Minerals in Madhya Pradesh occur in abundance in its several districts. In terms of the mineral production the state ranks third next only to Jharkhand and Chhatisgarh. The state of Madhya is said to have a favourable geotectonic setting that accommodates every episode of mineralisation the earth has experienced. It includes the occurrences of almost all varieties of minerals required as industrial input in the growing economy. The oldest group of rocks comprising of Archaeans and Proterozoic formation constitute nearly 45% area of the State. The next younger formation of Carboniferous to lower Cretaceous comprising Gondwana Super Group covers 10% area while the formation of Cretaceous to Paleocene comprising mostly of Deccan Trap basalt constitutes 38% area of the State. 16 major minerals are considered of specific importance as they contribute significantly in development of economy of the state. These include the Limestone, Bauxite, Coal, Manganese ore, Diamond, Base metals, Dolomite, Rock Phosphate and Granite. Others include Marble, Flagstone, Slate, Calcite, Quartz and Silica sand, Molybdenum and Fire clay.
SALIENT FEATURES OF MINERAL WEALTH IN MP:-
- The only working mines of diamond in India are in Panna district of Madhya Pradesh.
- Thickest coal seam of Asia lies in the Singrouli Coal Field, dist. Sidhi and other coal blocks near Chhindwara of the state.
- Country’s largest Open Cast Copper Mine is at Malajkhand in Balaghat district of the state.
- Occurrences of Paradiso granite is in a large tract of M.P.
- Highest cement producing state in India with 8 major and 3 mini cement plants, producing 15 percent cement of the country.
- Largest producer of copper, limestone, slate, diaspore and pyrophyllite.
- Leading producer of manganese , dolomite, rock phosphate and fire clay.
Limestone forms an important segment of mineral resources of Madhya Pradesh. As per the available statistics of Indian Bureau of Mines, the total reserve of limestone in the state is around 4.79 percent of the total national reserve of several million tonnes. Vast terrain of the state is prevalent with suitable grade of limestone for manufacturing of cement.
Another significant mineral resource of the state is Bauxite. The state has vast deposits of Bauxite, mainly in Balaghat district, Mandla district, Shahdol district, Rewa district, and Sidhi district. The highest degree of bauxite deposits of Jabalpur district are mainly used for calcinations to be used in refractory units.
Coal constitutes the vital raw material required for consumption in the energy sector. The state of Madhya Pradesh contributes about 14.09 percent of the total national reserve of coal. Madhya Pradesh has a large tract of favourable rock formation where coal is found which is distributed in Shahdol district, Chhindwara district, Betul district, Narsinghpur district and Sidhi district. The deposit of Sidhi district is considered as one of the largest deposits in the country. This mineral resource is mostly utilised in the thermal power plants, railways and industries. Based on the deposits of coal, three Thermal Power Plants are in operation in this state. Madhya Pradesh has large reserves of medium coking coal deposits in Shahdol district.
High strategic importance is given to Manganese Ore. Madhya Pradesh is India’s foremost source of manganese ore with a reserve of around 23.64 million tonnes accounting for near about 14.13 percent of the national reserve. The deposits are mostly located in Balaghat and Chhindwara districts constituting the bulk of deposit available in the state. Manganese is seldom used directly as metal and it also finds its application in various value added products like Ferro manganese, steel making, dry batteries, glass and chemical industries. The bulk of reserve of manganese ore found in Balaghat belt is of blast furnace grade and the reserve of Ferro manganese ore is very limited.
Base metals of Madhya Pradesh include copper, lead and zinc. In Madhya Pradesh as many as 117 base metals are on record. The copper ore occurrences are in Balaghat, Bastar region, Jabalpur, Betul, Hoshangabad district , Chhindwara, Sagar, Datia, Sidhi, Dewas, Shivpuri districtand Tikamgarh districts. The Malanjkhand copper mine is the largest hard rock opencast pit of the country.
Dolomite is another significant mineral found in the state. High grade dolomite has become the major industrial mineral because of its use in iron and steel and refractory industries. Occurrences of dolomite have been recorded in Mandla district, Seoni district, Chhatarpur district, Sagar district and Jabalpur district. The dolomite deposits of Mandla district are mainly used in iron and steel industries in and outside the state. The dolomite deposit of Jabalpur is mainly consumed in the refractory industries. The dolomite deposits of Mandla, Sagar and Chhatarpur districts have attained significance because of their high content of magnesia.
Rock Phosphate is another mineral resource found in the state of Madhya Pradesh. In this state, reserve of rock phosphate has been estimated around 35.99 million tonnes constituting almost 24.76 percent of the national reserve. The deposits are located in Jhabua, Sagar and Chhatarpur districts.
Granites are in much demand in the modern construction work as decorative and ornamental stones. Granite deposits are widespread throughout the state.
Moreover, Madhya Pradesh is fast emerging as marble producing state in the country. Exotic varieties of marble are available in Katni, Narsinghpur, Jabalpur, Mandla, Hoshangabad, Sidhi and Jhabua districts. The polished marble of Katni district is considered as good as Italian marble.
Other major mineral of Madhya Pradesh is Pyrophyllite. The deposits of Pyrophyllite occur in Chhatarpur, Shivpuri and Tikamgarh districts of the state. Its occurrences have also been found in Gwalior district.
Molybdenum is an important strategic mineral. It is mainly found in Malanjkhand area of Balaghat district. Over 94 million tonnes of fireclays of various grades have been estimated in Madhya Pradesh. The deposits distributed in Shahdol district, Gwalior, Katni, Jabalpur, Sidhi, Betul and Chhindwara districts has led to the establishment of a number of refractory and some ceramic industries in the state.
Madhya Pradesh is the sole producer of slate in the country. White and red coloured slate found in Mandsaur district is used mainly in producing slate pencil. Significant deposits of calcite occur in the western part of Madhya Pradesh mainly in Barwani district. The total reserve of quartz and silica sand in the state of Madhya Pradesh accounts for around 4387 thousand tonnes which is nearly 0.18 percent of the total reserve of the country. The deposits are distributed in the districts of Chhatarpur, Chhindwara, Datia, Gwalior, Jhabua, Mandla, Rewa, etc. Further, the state of Madhya Pradesh has a distinction of having the lone diamond mine in the country located at Majhgawan area in Panna District. Also, wide deposits of white, cream, pink and red coloured sandstone occurs in Shivpuri district, Guna district, Gwalior district, Panna district, Vidisha district, Raisen district and Sagar district.
There are many mineral based industries in Madhya Pradesh including cement plants, thermal power plants, and caustic soda plants.
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