Soils of Madhya Pradesh:-
Soils of Madhya Pradesh vary as per the structure, colour, texture and composition in the different regions. Madhya Pradesh is that part of the peninsular plateau of India where residual soils are found in an extensive area. The rock formation determines the soil structure and composition in this state. As a result of this organic materials are found at a large scale in soils. In this state the problem of soil erosion is almost negligible but due to excessive use of the land, the problem of soil erosion is accelerating. Madhya Pradesh comprises of a variety of soils ranging from rich clayey to gravelly. According to the survey done in the state, the major groups of soils found in the state can be divided into five major categories namely:-
- Alluvial Soil
- Black Soil or Regur Soil (medium and deep black, shallow and medium black, mixed red and black coloured)
- Clayey Soil
- Mixed Soil
- Red and Yellow Soil
This soil mostly found in the North -Western Districts of Madhya Pradesh. Especially in the plains of Bundelkhand and Chambal region or deposition of soils brought by the rivers. It is the most fertile soils. In Madhya Pradesh this soils is found in Gwalior, Shivpuri and Bhind and Morena, brought by the river Chambal and its auxiliary rivers. Such soils are poor in Nitrogen and Phosphorous hence need proper use of fertilizers. Water retention capacity of such soils is also very poor. Due to lack of Nitrogen, biotic components and phosphorus, the vegetal cover over the part of land is very thin.
Black Soil or Regur Soil:-
Soils of Madhya Pradesh Medium and deep black coloured soil is extensively found in the Valley of Narmada River, Malwa Plateau, and Satpura mountain range, which contains about 20 to 60 percent clay and has a depth of near about 1 to 2 metres. It is also knows as Regur (Humus) soil. Black soil are composed of Basaltic rocks mainly found in the Deccan Trap (Malwa Plateau). It is distributed is nearly 47.6 percent of the land of Madhya Pradesh. Such soils mainly consists of Iron and lime rocks. The presence of Iron gives it the Black colour and the presence of lime increases its moisture retention capacity therefore needs less irrigation. Cotton and soya bean are most suitable crops to be grown in such soil. The quantity of Calcium, Magnesium, Aluminum, Iron, Potassium and Magnesium Carbonate is more in black soil but it laks in Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Carbonic elements. Soil ero sion is lesser in Black soil, Black soil are reclassified in following sub type :
Area of Black Soil- Bhopal, Betul, Barwani, Chhindwara, Damoh, Dhar, Dewas, Vidisha, Shajapur, Jabalpur, Khandwa, Raigarh, Mandsaur, Narsingpur, Raisen, Sidhi, Shivpuri, Seoni, Sehore, Sagar, Guna, Indore, Ujjain, Ratlam, Jhabua.
- Normal Black Soil :
This soil founded in northern Malwa plateau and Nimar regions of Madhya Pradesh. It is the moist extensively found black soil and its fertility level is medium.
- Layered Black Soil:
It is a clay type smooth black soils found in Chhindwara, Seoni, Betul area. The fertility level of such soil is also medium.
- Dark Black Soil:
Found in Narmada Valley, Satpura ranges and Southern Malwa Plateau fertility status of these soils is very low.
This soil is highly fertile for the production of wheat, oilseeds, and jowar crops. Shallow and medium black coloured soils constitute the maximum part of the black soil. It is comparatively less fertile than the medium deep black soil. The whole northern part of the Malwa plateauand Nimad region comprises this soil. It is 15 cm to one metre depth and the colour of soil is grey or light black. Mixed red and black soil spreads about 75 lakh hectares land comprising the Satpura region. Most of the part of the region has very shallow soil. Three districts namely Chhindwara district, Betul district, and Seoni district comprise this type of soil.
Clayey soil is mostly found in the flood plain, and it is mainly transported and deposited by the rivers during flood. This soil is favourable for the production of wheat, sugarcane, and cotton. The areas which consist of this type of soil include Bhind, Morena, and Gwalior. Clayey soil is mainly deposited by the river Chambal and its tributaries.
Vindhya region and the central part of the state of Madhya Pradesh have a deposition of mixed soil composed by red, yellow and black soils. The entire Baghelkhand region including Balaghat district, Mandla district, Dindori district and Shahdol district of the state have a deposition of red and yellow soils. A mixture of red, yellow and black soils is found in many parts of the state. This type of soils has very less amount of nitrogen, phosphorous and carbonic elements. So the soils is not fertile. As the soils is not fertile wheat and other crops cannot be grown, so crops, which need lesser quantum of nitrogen, phosphorous and carbonic elements, are grown as such soils such as corn, Bajra etc.
Areas of mixed soils: Sheopur, Morena, Bhind, Gwalior, Shivpuri.
Red and Yellow Soil:-
It is mostly found in Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand regions of the state. Its yellow colour is due to the presence of ferric oxide and iis red colour is due to the presence of compounds produced after the oxidation of Iron. Its fertility level’s low because it is poor in Nitrogen and Humus. Rice is mostly grown in such soils. This soils covers almost 36.5 percent of the state. Rice is grown is most part of the state on these soils. The pH level of these soils is between 5.5 to 8.5.
Areas of red-yellow soils – Mandla, Balaghat, Shahdol, Sidhi, Katni, Umaria.
This type of soils is found in the North Western part of the state like Shivpuri, Gwalior, Bhind and Morena. The amount of Nitrogen, Organic matter and Phosphorous is less. So vegetation is less in such soils.This soil is suitable for crops like Wheat, Sugarcane, Cotton etc.The proportion of sand, slit and clay.
Such soils are light is texture and mostly found in the plains and river belts. Fertility level is medium and contains sand and clay is almost equal proportion.
Soils erosion is the phenomenon of continuous deterioration in the soil due to the shifting of soil through various environmental forces, one of the main factors of soil erosion is Deforestation. Roots of the plants and trees hold the soils in its place and they also sustain the adverse effects of atmospheric forces and therefore prevent soils erosion. But due to extensive deforestation soil erosion is becoming a grave danger to the human civilization, especially in the areas where soils are of light and medium texture. The scene is no different in Madhya Pradesh, which is facing rapid soils erosion in its northern part along the Chambal and its tributaries. Large scale gully erosion can be seen in the belt around the districts of Gwalior, Morena and Bhind. Since the soils of this area are light and lack vegetation thus water takes away soils with its flow and results is erosion. Soils erosion not only disturbs to pographic and ecological balance but large part of fertile sub surface land also goes waste through Run off.Thus it is social, environment and economical problem of the present era. The only way to center this menace is to create a healthy nature friendly ecological environment around us.