Training and Development: the employees to improve their knowledge and skill so as to be able to perform their tasks more efficiently is known as training. It is an organised activity for increasing the knowledge and skills of people for a specific purpose. The term ‘development ‘refers to the process of not only building up the skill and abilities for specific purpose but also the overall competence of employees to undertake more difficult and challenging tasks. It is generally used with reference to the training of managers and executives. Training and Development Training is an act of increasing the knowledge and technical skills of an employee for doing a particular job efficiently.
Different Training Interventions for the Civil Services
Mid Career training
Domestic Long Term Public Policy Programmes
Domestic Funding of Foreign Training Scheme- Long term, Short term and Partial Funded Programs
Customised/ tailor Made Programmes on Specific Subjects
Funding to State Training programmes
Intensive Training programme
Foundation Course-15 wks
- Economics, History, General Principles of Law, Legal Concepts, Rule of Law,Rule of Law, civil and Criminal Courts, Public Administration, New Paradigm in Governance, Principles of Natural justice, CrPC, Culture, project management, Gender Sensitisation, Preventing Corruption, Human Rights, Administrative Laws &Tribunals, Disaster Management.
Phase I- 26 wks
- District Administration and its Regulatory role, Land Administration, Decentralisation, Panchayati Raj, Rural and Urban development, Health, Education, Infrastructure, Project Management, Elections, Environment, Public Finance, Leadership and HRM.
District Training- 54 wks
- Attachment at District and State Head Quarters, Independent Charges, Language Instructions and Learning.
Phase II-8 wks
- Presentations and De-Briefing session on the experience s during district training, foreign exposure and Seminars.
Development refers to the learning opportunities designed to help employees to grow. It involves growth an individual in all areas. Development help workforce to improve technical skills, problem solving skills and decision making skills. Training is necessary for new employees as well as the existing employees for improving their performance at work. For new employees, training is necessary to help them get acquainted with the method of operation and skill requirement of the job. For existing employees, training at periodical intervals is helpful for learning better ways of doing the work, and also as and when they have to undertake new jobs. Thus, training helps employees to improve their knowledge and skill and make them perform their tasks more efficiently. It also helps them in promotion and improves their attitudes and confidence levels.
Importance of Training and Development Benefits of training for organisations:
Methods of Training There are different methods of giving training to the employees which can be divided into two broad categories.
On-the-Job methods and Off-the-Job methods.
- On-the-Job methods : In these methods, the employees learn about their jobs while doing the work duly assisted by their supervisors or seniors. These methods encourage self-learning through practice. Job instruction or coaching, and job rotation, learning while working as an assistant to a senior, understudy positions, temporary promotions are some of the common methods of on-the-job training.
- Off-the-Job methods: These methods involve training employees away from the work place so that experts may conduct the training and employees are free from immediate pressure of completing the jobs at hand. Lectures with demonstration, conferences, case discussions, video shows and films are some of the common methods used as off-the-job training methods. Then, there is another off the job method of training called vestibule training. The vestibule training refers to the training in specially designed workshops in which an attempt is made to duplicate as closely as possible the actual conditions of the work place. In such workshops a large number of employees can be trained in a relatively short period of time.
The Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration (LBSNAA), Mussoorie is the premier training institution for the higher civil services in India. A common Foundation Course is held for entrants to All India Services and all Group ‘A’ services of the Union. The professional training to regular recruits of the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) and members of the Royal Bhutan Service is conducted after the Foundation Course. The Academy also conducts in-service and Mid-Career Training Programme (MCTP) for members of the IAS and Induction Training Programme for officers promoted to the IAS from State Civil Services, as well as workshops and seminars on policy issues.
Noronha Academy of Administration and Management is the apex and nodal training institute of Madhya Pradesh, India. It organises training programmes for the senior officers of the government of Madhya Pradesh, government of India and Public Sector Undertakings. It has been effectively playing an advisory role for the Madhya Pradesh government in Human Resource Development. It is also a coordinating institution for the various training institutions of the state.
In recent times, there has been accelerated change globally brought about by technological advance greater decentralization and social activism. The ramifications of these changes are being felt government in the form of increasing expectations for better governance through effective service delivery, transparency, accountability and rule of law.
The civil service, as the primary arm of government, keep pace with the changing times in order to meet the aspirations of the people. The purpose ‘reform’ is to reorient the Civil Services into a dynamic, efficient and accountable apparatus for p service delivery built on the ethos and values of integrity, impartiality and neutrality. The reform is raise the quality of public services delivered to the citizens and enhances the capacity to carry out government functions, thereby leading to sustainable development.
Prior to developing the contents of Civil Service Reform, there is a need for an open, objective st taking of the current situation.
India’s massive bureaucracy is maintained at huge cost by the country’s taxpayer whose average income is among the lowest in the world. But the public perception about the members of the services, who function at cutting edge and higher coordinating and policy making levels, is that they burdensome low-performers’ heading a highly bloated bureaucracy, which is, often, perceived to corrupt and inefficient in governing the country.
The ailments afflicting Indian civil services are:
- Lack of professionalism and poor capacity building
- Inefficient incentive systems that do not appreciate upright and outstanding civil servants but reward the corrupt and the incompetent
- Outmoded rules and procedures that restrict the civil servant from performing effectively
- Systemic inconsistencies in promotion and empanelment
- Lack of adequate transparency and accountability procedures – there is also no safety for while blowers
- Arbitrary and whimsical transfers – insecurity in tenures impedes institutionalization
- Political interference and administrative acquiescence
- Gradual erosion in values and ethics
- Patrimonialism1(World Bank, 1994)
It is well recognized that Civil Service Reform is not only necessary but also inevitable. It has much value in governance as in socio-economic development.