1.The first tool is ‘education’. With the help of education we can reduce corruption. According to a report by Transparency International, the least corrupt state is Kerala, the reason being that Kerala’s literacy rate is highest in India. So we can see how education effects education. In most of the states, normally a fairly large number of people are uneducated. Those who are uneducated do not know about the process, provisions and procedures through which they can get justice. Corrupt public servants try to make a fool of them and often demand bribes. It is due to unawareness in the field of law, public rights and procedures thereof that a common and an uneducated suffer out of the corrupt society. This suggests that if we are educated, we can understand our rights well.
- We need to change the government processes. If the members of the governing body are government officials, there will certainly be less reports of the criminal cases. The reverse may be possible only when there are no more criminal politicians in our government. The provision is that, if there is any case filed against a person then he would not be eligible for election. But if we see 100 politicians then about 60% of those would have a criminal case against them. If these ‘criminal’ politicians are in charge of forming and implementing laws, what type of law would be formed, one can only guess! Thus during election, we should keep in mind the person for whom we shall not vote. In India there is a provision that no person as a criminal shall be allowed as a Member of Parliament or member of legislative. Unfortunately a fairly large number of them are a part of it.
- We can reduce corruption by increasing direct contact between government and the governed. E-governance could help a lot towards this direction. In a conference on, “Effects of Good Governance and Human Rights“ organised by National Human Right Commission, A. P. J. Abdul Kalam gave an example of the Delhi metro rail system and online railway reservation as good governance and said that all the lower courts should follow the example of the Supreme Court and High Court and make judgements available online. Similarly, Sivraj Patil said that the Right to information should be used for transparency. We have legal rights to know a lot of information. According to this act, (Right to Information act 2005), generally people should follow the procedure of law given to then when their work is not being implemented in a proper way in public services. This act is a great help in the order to control corruption.
- Lack of effective corruption treatment is another reason. That means, instruments which are in use, are not running properly. Despite the Prevention of Corruption Act 1988, corruption is still flourishing. Why? Because of weak actions and proceedings towards corrupt people. People don’t have any fear of this act and the court. The act may thus be revised for its better implementation.
- Lack of transparency and professional accountability is yet another big reason. We should be honest to ourselves. Until and unless we will not be honest, we can’t control corruption. If each of us is honest towards our profession, then corruption will automatically decrease. We need to pay attention towards professional accountability i.e., how much we are faithful and truthful towards our profession. Corruption may be controlled by handling five major professions: lekhpal, medical, revenue, police and judicial.
5 Places Where Corruption Exists:
- Lekhpal, a government official, whose job is to examine, report and keep all records of lands. But recently, there have been a lot of cases in the court, which are based on land dispute. Why is it so? This is due to the flaws in the department of lekha vibhag. As far as this department is concerned, if the people pay attention towards professional accountability, land disputes can be considerably reduced, or resolved faster. This would account for a fairly large control over corruption.
- Another type of profession where corruption is rampant is the medical sector. How? There are many government hospitals and public health centres in villages and cities. There are some doctors, appointed for the treatment of the people. But in government hospitals, there is hardly ever proper treatment for the common man. Doctors have started opening their own private clinic to earn more money. The public hospitals lack adequate medicines and other required facilities. Doctors may not be found on the scheduled timings. The poor people, who only depend upon the government hospitals, are suffering since they can’t afford treatment from the private hospital. If the doctors would come in time, and in hospital there is sufficient medicines and proper treatment available, then most of the people would have been healthy. Thus doctors need to give their job professional accountability.
- Third one is the revenue department. In this department, a fairly large number of the employees are corrupt. They take bribes and leave the person who didn’t even give tax off the hook. For e.g. income tax. If every person is honest towards his/her profession then a heavy loss of Indian government may be saved.
- There is a lot of crime around us and criminals are doing their work without any fear. If police becomes serious then there will be control over corruption to the extent of nearly, say about 60-70%. They should perform their duty honestly. The day all the officers will be serious towards their profession, we may expect a corruption-free environment.
- And last but not the least, is the department of judiciary. We know there are several lakh cases which are pending in the courts in India. The process of justice is very delayed in our country. Due to this, the numbers of cases are increasing day by day. If the proceedings are fast, people may see that if they do wrong or commit any crimes then they will have to face punishment. People thus will hesitate to take bribe. To recall and mention a famous quote here, ‘Justice delayed is justice denied’.
STRATEGIC CHALLENGES IN FIGHTING CORRUPTION
The real challenges in the struggle against corruption reach into all sectors of society and include efforts to restrict illegal money flows, state capture, the ever-larger funding sources feeding corruption and the need to dampen ingrained fears of corrupt officials.
- ILLICIT FLOWS
- The World Economic Forum’s global risk report from January 2010 said illicit trade represents between seven and 10 percent of the global economy. It cited corruption as one of the major risks to stability and economic recovery.
- Much is being done to hide illegal profits. Some tax havens, for example, have more registered companies and trusts per capita than industrial states: 40 companies are registered in the Virgin Islands for every citizen that lives there.
- The Cayman Islands has a population of 50,000, yet 70 per cent of the world’s hedge funds are registered there. Banks resident there held more than $1.7 trillion in assets at the end of 2008.
- STATE CAPTURE
- Another top challenge is state capture. We can no longer ignore the connection between financial opacity and the world’s most dangerous and destructive criminals.
- In the past years press reports revealed how drug gangs launder billions of dollars and kill anyone in their way from judges to attorneys. When criminal gangs take on so much power and wealth, and hold so much sway over state institutions, we can start to talk about state capture.
- In capitals around the world many lobbyists actively work to prevent the passage of new laws and regulations, and their enforcement. As an example, the revolving door spins furiously in places like Washington and Brussels as former politicians and regulators join banks and then lobby their old colleagues to ease the rules governing the financial industry.
- It is clear that more often than not, contributions to candidates and to political parties are used to purchase future support for the contributors’ company and interests.
- In some Latin American and other cities and states around the world, drug cartels have a growing influence over local governments and rule by fear, and by buying the support of the judiciary, and government, at all levels.
- With this in mind it is unsettling to note that the Inter-American Development Bank estimates the cost of violence generated by organised crime at US$168 billion in Latin America as a whole.
- RESOURCES FOR CORRUPTION
- Unfortunately, the extent of resources available to sustain corruption are endless as illicit profits feed further graft.
- This makes corrupt networks more resilient and sophisticated, challenging corruption fighters to redouble the hunt for resources, to be equally sophisticated and to make greater use of technology and other tools to battle graft.
- The globalization of crime, the enormity of transnational illicit flows – estimated at $1.3 trillion by the organisation Global Financial Integrity – makes it impossible for governments to tackle the problem on their own.
- THE “FEAR” FACTOR
- And then there is the ‘fear factor’. When those in power such as the police and judges, or those who hold the keys to accessing essential services such as health, education, licenses, water and electricity expect a bribe in return for providing services or for looking the other way, those who can afford it pay, others go without the service.
- One quarter of Latin Americans report having paid a bribe to the judicial system in the space of twelve months, in India it is one in two.
TI STRATEGIES IN PREVENTING AND DEALING WITH CORRUPTION
- Transparency International, TI has numerous strategies to keep corruption on the local, national and international agendas.
- You probably know TI for our Corruption Perceptions Index. This has been an important tool for raising awareness about the widespread and damaging nature of corruption.
- The 2011 Corruption Perceptions Index ranks 183 countries, 32 of which are in the Americas. More than two-thirds of them don’t even make it to the middle of the global ranking – indicating that corruption is a serious problem in those countries.
- The 2011 scores refute arguments that blame corruption in certain regions on culture. Among the countries in the Americas that score above five we find countries not only from North America, but also from Latin America and the Caribbean.
- The Corruption Perceptions Index is complimented by TI’s Global Corruption Barometer, a tool that in 2010 captured the experiences and views of more than 91,500 people in 86 countries and territories, making it the only world-wide public opinion survey on corruption.
- It showed that six out of ten people around the world thought corruption had increased over the previous three years. It also revealed that one in four people report paying bribes in the last year.
- A number of TI Chapters have also created scorecards, scoring essential anticorruption performance indicators on a national level and local level . National Integrity System studies further analyse both the extent and causes of corruption in a given country as well as the effectiveness of national anti-corruption efforts.
- These tools serve citizens who demand probity in government services and help identify those sectors most vulnerable to corruption.
- EMPOWERING CITIZENS
- Tools are also needed to combat corruption on the local level. Beyond being outlets to report corruption, our chapters assist people in gaining access to services and inform government entities of problems in the delivery of services.
- For example, TI has Advocacy and Legal Advice Centres in more than 45 countries, including Participacion Ciudadana, that typically operate toll-free hotlines, encouraging citizens to report corruption.
- They have received more than 100,000 complaints since 2003.
- From this effort we have learned that we need to travel out to rural isolated communities to encourage people to come forward.
- Similarly, in Peru, Guatemala and Bolivia, TI chapters have already worked with remote communities helping the poor to monitor Conditional Cash Transfer programmes. I believe
- More than reporting corruption, citizens and NGOs are increasingly undertaking activities that can prevent it. They are taking part in decision-making and monitoring projects. The work of Participacion Ciudadana in training people to monitor climate change programmes is another good step in this positive trend.
- TI also advocates voluntary agreements that allow our chapters to work with committed public officials who are keen to demonstrate their integrity and deliver on promises. The pacts are based on local priorities, be it service delivery, infrastructure or greater participation in local planning, and have been successful in defeating corruption from Bangladesh to Ghana.
- PROMOTING TRANSPARENCY, INTEGRITY AND ACCOUNTABILITY IN GOVERNMENT
- Civil society can mobilise the greatest pressure for change by calling on governments to meet their international commitments under various treaties.
- Bad governance distorts markets and destabilises societies, perpetuating poverty and social injustice. Governments, businesses and citizens across the globe have to join efforts to fight this common scourge by promoting more open governments.
- To this end TI encourages the enforcement of international Conventions and rule-making on the home front to reign in opaque budget-making, establish greater transparency on government procurement and construction projects, and the creation of government anti-corruption watchdogs.
- The most far reaching tool for fighting global corruption is the United Nations Convention against Corruption.
- The adoption of the UN Convention, eight years ago, was widely hailed as a major breakthrough, establishing a comprehensive global framework for combating corruption. It provides a model for anti-corruption legislation and a framework for a level playing field.
- It obliges signatories to ensure there are anti-corruption bodies and justice system capable of preventing and prosecuting corruption in both public and private sectors.
- Of course, many of you will be quick to point out that almost a decade before the UN Convention entered into force, countries across the Americas joined forces to establish the Inter-American Convention against Corruption.
- Our goal is to learn from the successes and challenges remaining of the Inter-American Convention at an international level. TI’s National Chapters in the Americas have undertaken a valuable sustained effort to produce independent evaluation reports.
- TI also reports on implementation of the OECD convention against bribery of public officials and has sought to encourage member states to do more to incentivise good corporate behaviour. At the same time, we have sought to
- Outside of international conventions, governments have plenty of options for cleaning up corrupt practices in everything from budgeting to public procurement.
- In Venezuela our chapter found a 125 per cent difference between oil revenues from the OPEC member as given in the 2012 budget bill and figures it calculated based on information presented by the President, begging the question of where the extra money will go and showing why budget transparency is so important.
- TI also sees public procurement as one of the areas of government most prone to corruption. It is a worldwide market worth US$ 2 trillion annually, according to the OECD.
- One solution to get all players involved in a public contract to sign up to a legally binding no-bribe agreement called an Integrity Pact.
- Strong overseers can further strengthen the hand of government. Institutional ombudsmen, supreme audits and anti-corruption commissions that are independent, professional and properly resourced make up the basic elements of a strong system to defeat graft.
- With elections occurring nearly daily around the globe one cannot forget the importance of government rule-making that separates the influence of money from political campaigns, the importance of strong and independent Electoral Commissions and full transparency in contributions paid to candidates and to political parties.
- Eight out of 10 people surveyed for Transparency International’s 2010 Global Corruption Barometer judged political parties as corrupt or extremely corrupt.
- PROMOTING CLEAN BUSINESS
- Clean government goes hand-in-hand with clean business. We encourage companies to adopt and report on anti-corruption programmes in their company, their subsidiaries and throughout supply chains, but we also want to see more transparency about the operations of those supply chains.
- TI rates companies for their disclosure of anti-corruption plans and their operations in third countries.
- For the review of oil and gas company transparency we released in 2011, we recommended that companies publish what they pay to each government where they operate. We also recommended that they publish where their subsidiaries are registered and who their equity holders are.
- Only by putting resources behind investigators and giving political backing to the prosecutors will we create a genuine disincentive to bad corporate behaviour, and truly ensure that no one is above the law.
- YOUTH AND EDUCATION
- While companies may be important to fighting bribery today, it’s our youth that will stanch the flow of graft tomorrow. Nearly half of the world’s population (almost 3 billion people) is under the age of 25, according to the World Population Foundation. The importance of engaging youth in anti-corruption cannot be overestimated. It can help change attitudes and mores and build zero-tolerance for corruption where the problem is seen as an acceptable fact of life.
- With this in mind, education and bringing youth into the anticorruption movement is a top priority.
- In recent years we have organized a summer school on integrity, organized Transparency and Accountability Weeks in high schools and continue to use social media to reach a younger audience.
- In many countries, people no longer trust their leaders’ management of the public good. One potential positive result is that people will take a greater role in monitoring the management of that public good from now on.
The most basic element that constitutes the nation is the family. The nation is a large group of people that share a common descent, history, culture, or language, inhabiting a particular country, state, or territory.
The structure of the family at the bottom should reflect the government at the top level. The family and the government have their own heads. The government has its own arms with their own distinct roles, which are similar to the different members of a family, and their roles.
THE FAMILY AND THE GOVERNMENT
- For the government at the state level to function, the family at the bottom level must be functional. If the family structure crumbles, the government structure will crumble too. The family is like the epicenter of a government. Its failure will ultimately destabilize the government.
- Traditionally, the family was the smallest unit of the society. Several families made a clan and several clans made the tribe.
- Therefore, both the family and the state are comparative. The virtues or the vices that flourish at the state level reflect those at the family level. If virtues or vices abound at the family level, they also reflect those at the state level. This case applies to corruption with precision.
EDUCATING THE CHILDREN TO FIGHT CORRUPTION
- To reduce or to eradicate corruption in Kenya, three key players are paramount. They are the father, the mother, and the teacher. These terms can represent other adults symbolically, such as guardians, extended members of the family and neighbors. These people influence a child during the child’s growth.
- Parents and teachers play a huge role in the life of a child. Young children mimic what their parents say or do at birth. The parents form the foundation of what the child becomes early on. The teachings of the parents influence the personality and choices of the child thereafter. When the child goes to school, they meet the teachers who also play a major part to impart knowledge in them.
- The parents and the teachers can teach and influence the children to hate corruption. They can instill the values of hard work and determination and the benefits of reaping what they sow. However, they should not preach water and drink wine. They should ooze the same values and follow them to the core.
- With such values, the children will grow appreciating the need for integrity. Transparency, accountability, and hard work will form the basis of their lives. If we have majority of them working in government as adults, then they may instill the same values and reform the corrupt government system.
Integrating Schools And Family Cultures In Anti-Corruption Character Education
To create a prosperous, clean, and free from corruption condition, a nation must have a clean society. Successorgeneration of the nation must be clean, disciplined and honest as well as responsible. In contrast, manybehaviors today do not reflect those characters, particularly the issue of corruption which is getting out ofcontrol in this country. Corruption is a multi-dimensional problem which is not only just a legal issuebut alsosocial, economic, political, cultural and religious matters. Thus, it needs some approaches from differentperspectives to find the best efforts to eradicate corruption as well as the necessarily responsibility of suchparties as the public and the government altogether, especially in education.Transparency InternationalreleasedCorruption Perception Index for the year 2015. Indonesia ranked 88 with score of 36. (Corruption PerceptionsIndex 2015).Nearly at any time we can get information about various cases of corruption conducted by variousgroups ranging from ordinary people, government officials, council members, and even law enforcementofficers.Their behavior is probably based on the pattern of education they received duringtheirchildhood, both atschool and in the family.School has two main goals those are to establish both an intelligent and good person aswell as it has a great responsibility in character education for their students. While family is the first andforemost place in shaping children’s behavior. In consequent, both must be responsible for children’s behaviorformation.stated that the virtues necessarily to be communicated and socialized are honesty,compassion, self-control, respect/appreciate, cooperation, responsibility, and perseverance.Parents’ participation of parents in the education process of their children has been proven able to help reducingbehavioral problems from time to time That parents are more likely toparticipate in children’s education occurs when parents have a high-quality relationship with their children’steacher . One of the interventions aimed at improving children behavior through increased participation of both parents in the school and their relationship is by combining behavioral teacher consultation. Parents – teacher relationship plays a central role in shaping the behaviorrelationship on parents participation in problem solving and helps to explain when and why both parents should get involved in children’s education through this way In reality, there is a phenomenon that there is a tendency in educational process at schools giving more priority on the cognitive aspects than on affective and psychomotor ones. In some cases, the implementation of the National Examination was more concerned with intellectual aspects of rather than of honesty one. In fact, level of honesty is only 20%, because there are many students who cheat in various ways while workingthe national examinations