Newton’s law of universal gravitation states that a particle attracts every other particle in the universe using a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers. Gravitation Gravitation is the force by which every mass or particle of matter, including … Read more

Motions, Force, Laws of Motion

Motion Motion is a change in position of an object with respect to time. Motion is typically described in terms of displacement, distance, velocity, acceleration, time and speed. The branch of physics which deals with the study of motion of material objects is called mechanics. Mechanics is divided into following branches. (i) Statics : Statics … Read more

Work and Energy

Work energy and power Work is said to be done when a force applied on the body displaces the body through a certain distance in the direction of force.Mathematically, work is the force-displacement product (for those of you who prefer algebra) W = F x s cos a or the force-displacement path integral (for those … Read more


  Nature of light Light is a transverse, electromagnetic wave that can be seen by humans. The wave nature of light was first illustrated through experiments on diffraction and interference. Like all electromagnetic waves, light can travel through a vacuum. The transverse nature of light can be demonstrated through polarization. Light is produced by one … Read more


Sound is a longitudinal wave, in which the particles oscillate to and fro in the same direction of wave propagation. Sound waves cannot be transmitted through vacuum. The transmission of sound requires at least a medium, which can be solid, liquid, or gas. Newton to derive a relation for the velocity of sound in a gaseous … Read more

Electricity and Magnetism

Current Electricity Electric current is the rate of flow of electric charge through a conducting medium with respect to time. It is caused by drift of free electrons through a conductor to a particular direction.Charges in motion constitute an electric current. Such currents occur naturally in many situations. Lightning is one such phenomenon in which … Read more

Data handling and Interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency etc.)

We have Bifurcated the topic Data handling and Interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency etc.) into following topics for exhaustive study:- Data Analysis – Mathematical operation Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude etc.) Data interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency etc.) and analysis of data. Data Collection Analysis- Interpretation- Collection, Interpretat ion and … Read more


Get Complete Prelims PDF Checkout Added to cart   This module will teach you the basics of direct and indirect proportions. These concepts will further help you in time and work questions. Important Formulas – chain rule Direct ProportionTwo quantities are said to be directly proportional, if on the increase or decrease of the one, … Read more


Get Complete Prelims PDF Checkout Added to cart Profit and loss   IMPORTANT FACTS Cost Price: The price, at which an article is purchased, is called its cost price, abbreviated as C.P.   Selling Price: The price, at which an article is sold, is called its selling prices, abbreviated as S.P.   Profit or Gain: If S.P. is greater … Read more


Get Complete Prelims PDF Checkout Added to cart Important Formulas – Percentage PercentagePercent means for every 100 So, when percent is calculated for any value, it means that we calculate the value for every 100 of the reference value. percent is denoted by the symbol %. For example, x percent is denoted by x% x%=x/100Example … Read more

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