Many great cultures had developed in different countries and regions of the world. Many of them have perished or have been replaced by other cultures. However Indian culture has had an enduring character. Despite major changes and upheavals significant threads of continuity can be traced throughout the course of Indian history right upto the present day. Harappan civilization which flourished in the Indian subcontinent over 4500 years ago. Archaeologists have found evidences to show that cultures existed here even before the matured phase of the Harappan civilization. This tells us that we have a very long history behind us. And ... Read more
. Punjabi is a language with several shades. It is being written in two scripts, Gurmukhi and Persian. The Gurmukhi script till the end of the nineteenth century was almost limited to the Adi Granth, the holy book of the Sikhs. Only a small number of people tried to learn the script except the granthis, who recited the holy Granth in the gurdwaras. However, the language did not lack literature. Guru Nanak was the first poet in Punjabi. Some other contemporary poets, mostly Sufi saints, used to sing in this language. These Sufis or their followers used the Persian script ... Read more
India is popularly known to be a land of spirituality particularly to the West. However, Indian history from ancient times to present day shows that the developments of materialistic and non-materialistic culture have been going on alongside. You will recall that the Harappan civilization was an urban one. It had a systematic town planning where roads cut each other at right angles. They had a profound knowledge of mathematics, weights and measures. They had built their towns in a scientific manner and had an elaborate drainage system. The Harappans had external trade and travelled across the seas to trade with ... Read more
. Communalism in India is used to denote the differences between the various religious groups and differences among the people of different communities. And generally it is used to catalyse communal violence between those groups. There is a need to reform the present criminal justice system, speedy trials and adequate compensation to the victims, may act as a deterrent. Increase in representation of minority communities and weaker sections in all wings of law-enforcement, training of forces in human rights, especially in the use of firearms in accordance with UN code of conduct. Codified guidelines for the administration, specialised training for ... Read more
Bihu The Bihu dance is a folk dance from the Indian State of Assam related to the festival of Bihu. This Jogous dance is performed by both young men and women and is characterised by brisk dance steps, and rapid hand movement. Dancers wear traditionally colourful Assamese clothing. Bhangra Bhangra is a folk dance conducted by Punjab Sikh farmers to celebrate the coming of the harvest season. The folk dance has been popularised in the western world by Punjab. Garba Garba is a dance form that originated in the Gujarat region. Traditionally it is performed during the nine-day Hindu festival ... Read more
. The SNDP movement was an example of a regional movement born out of conflict between the depressed classes and upper castes. It was started by Sree Narayana Guru Swamy (1856- 1928) among the Ezhavas of Kerala, who were a backward caste of toddy-tappers and were considered to be untouchables, denied education and entry into temples. The Ezhavas were the single largest caste group in Kerala constituting 26 per cent of the total population. Narayana Guru, himself from the Ezhava caste, took a stone from the Neyyar river and installed it as a Sivalinga at Aruvippuram on Sivaratri in 1888. ... Read more
DMPQ- How the Indian concept of secularism is different from the western model of secularism? Discuss.
. Indian secularism is fundamentally different from Western secularism. Indian secularism does not focus only on church-state separation and the idea of inter-religious equality is crucial to the Indian conception. Indian secularism took on a distinct form as a result of an interaction between what already existed in a society that had religious diversity and the ideas that came from the West. It resulted in equal focus on intra-religious and interreligious domination. Indian secularism equally opposed the oppression of dalits and women within Hinduism, the discrimination against women within Indian Islam or Christianity, and the possible threats that a majority ... Read more
Causes of Religious Conflicts 1. Difference in beliefs: People belonging to different religions have difference in their beliefs. This difference often leads to conflict. 2. Poor upbringing: The religious belief of a person has its root in his childhood. People learn what they see. If their ancestors were intolerant towards other religions, then they also do the same thing. Human beings themselves create religious violence. 3. Lack of education: Illiterate people can be easily mis-guided by people who want to spread violence in the name of religion. 4. The mindset of some people who think other religions as small often ... Read more
Learned Behaviour Not all behaviour is learned, but most of it is learned; combing one’s hair, standing in line, telling jokes, criticising the President and going to the movie, all constitute behaviours which had to be learned. Sometimes the terms conscious learning and unconscious learning are used to distinguish the learning. For example, the ways in which a small child learns to handle a tyrannical father or a rejecting mother often affect the ways in which that child, ten or fifteen years later, handles his relationships with other people. Culture is Abstract Culture exists in the minds or habits of ... Read more
The Ministry of Tourism in India recently launched its “Dekho Apna Desh” webinar to offer tourism virtually. It is intended to provide an in-depth knowledge on several destinations in India alongwith information about the heritage of India. The first webinar, ‘City of Cities – Delhi’s Personal Diary’, took place on April 14, and touched upon the history of Delhi. The series of webinars shall be an ongoing feature and the ministry will work towards showcasing the diverse and remarkable history and culture of India including its monuments, cuisine, arts, dance forms, natural landscapes, festivals and many other aspects.