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Applications of Science and Technology in Social and Economic development

  Professor Freeman J. Dyson, of Institute of Advanced Studies, Princeton, in his book “Infinite in all Directions,” had this to say about Technology: “Technology is a gift of God. After the gift of Life, it is perhaps the greatest of God’s gifts. It is the mother of civilization, of Arts and of Sciences. Technology continues to grow to liberate mankind from the constraints of the past. The most revolutionary aspect of technology is its mobility. Anybody can learn it. It jumps easily over barriers of race and language. And its mobility is still increasing.” Developments in science and technology ... Read more

Patents and Intellectual Property Rights. (TRIPS & TRIMS).

Patents and Intellectual Property Rights. (TRIPS & TRIMS) Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) are set of rights associated with creations of the human mind. An output of the human mind may be attributed with intellectual property rights. These are like any other property, and the law allows the owner to use the same to economically profit from the intellectual work. Broadly IPR covers laws related to copyrights, patents and trademarks. While laws for these are different in different countries, they follow the international legal instruments. The establishment of the Wold Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) has established the significance of IPR for ... Read more

The Global Positioning System (GPS)

The Global Positioning System consists of 24 satellites, that circle the globe once every 12 hours, to provide worldwide position, time and velocity information. GPS makes it possible to precisely identify locations on the earth by measuring distance from the satellites. GPS allows you to record or create locations from places on the earth and help you navigate to and from those places. GPS satellites circle the Earth twice a day in a precise orbit. Each satellite transmits a unique signal and orbital parameters that allow GPS devices to decode and compute the precise location of the satellite. GPS receivers ... Read more

Energy Management: Issues and challenges

Energy management includes planning and operation of energy production and energy consumption units. Objectives are resource conservation, climate protection and cost savings, while the users have permanent access to the energy they need.The main objectives of energy management are resource conservation, climate protection and cost savings. The central task of energy management is to reduce costs for the provision of energy in buildings and facilities without compromising work processes. The simplest way to introduce energy management is the effective use of energy to maximize profit by minimizing costs. Energy management could save up to 70% of the energy consumption in a typical building or plant. The Government of ... Read more

Current status of alternative sources of energy and their future prospects

Current status of alternative sources of energy Alternative energy is any energy source that is an alternative to fossil fuel. These alternatives are intended to address concerns about such fossil fuels, such as its high carbon dioxide emissions, an important factor in global warming. Marine energy, hydroelectric, wind, geothermal and solar power are all alternative sources of energy.  The nature of what constitutes an alternative energy source has changed considerably over time, as have controversies regarding energy use. Because of the variety of energy choices and differing goals of their advocates, defining some energy types as “alternative” is considered very ... Read more

Environment protection laws, Policies and regulatory framework

The Environment Protection Act is an important legislation that provides for coordination of activities of the various regulatory agencies, creation of authorities with adequate powers for environmental protection, regulation of the discharge of environmental pollutants, handling of hazardous substances, etc. The Act provided an opportunity to extend legal protection to non-forest habitats (‘Ecologically Sensitive Areas’) such as grasslands, wetlands and coastal zones.The Environment (Protection) Act was enacted in 1986 with the objective of providing for the protection and improvement of the environment. It empowers the Central Government to establish authorities charged with the mandate of preventing environmental pollution in all its ... Read more

The Environment – development debate

Environmental influences are important both at the prenatal and postnatal stages of human development. At the prenatal stage, when a fetus is in the mother’s womb,  internal or external harmful agents, such as certain legal or illegal drugs, alcohol, lead and pollutants can harm the unborn baby’s development. The mother’s nutrition, diseases and emotional stress can also affect the development of the fetus. The environment provides various resources to man-both renewable and nonrenewable. Renewable resources are those resources which are replenished easily over time, and hence can be used without the possibility of the resource becoming depleted or exhausted. Examples ... Read more

Solid Waste Management

Solid Waste Management; Types of Solid waste Management; Factors affecting Solid Waste Generation Solid Waste Management Solid waste management is basic public services which every citizen should have access to, both for health and hygiene, and for ensuring a good quality of living. Sanitation here refers to toilet facilities, whereas solid waste management refers to the management collection and disposal of solid waste (as opposed to liquid waste). The image of a city as being clean and free of waste, impacts its desirability for doing business by entrepreneurs and for future residents to live. Municipalities in India are responsible for ... Read more

Causes of low industrialization in Madhya Pradesh

Causes of low industrialization in Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh (MP) has predominantly been an agrarian state economy which shows co-existence of poverty and prosperity in the state. The state’s economic and demographic profile describes an economy of rural mass, poverty and growth led by agriculture. Despite five decades of planned economic development, MP continues to be in the BIMARU state group Madhya Pradesh (MP) has predominantly been an agrarian state economy which shows co-existence of poverty and prosperity in the state. The state’s economic and demographic profile describes an economy of rural mass, poverty and growth led by agriculture. Despite ... Read more

Economic reforms in india

Economic reforms in india New Industrial Policy Under Industrial Policy, keeping in view the priorities of the country and its economic development, the roles of the public and private sectors are clearly decided. Under the New Industrial Policy, the industries have been freed to a large extent from the licenses and other controls. In order to encourage modernisation, stress has been laid upon the use of latest technology. A great reduction has been effected in the role of the public sector.  Efforts have been made to encourage foreign investment. Investment decision by companies has been facilitated by ending restrictions imposed ... Read more