Animal Husbandry of Madhya Pradesh
Animal husbandry plays a vital role and provides additional source of income to the farmers of the country. Animal products, for long, have also played an important role in the socio-economic life of the country. It has been a rich source of high quality animal products that have added greater nutritional value to the diet of both the farmers and other consumers as well. Products derived from animal husbandry mainly include milk, meat and eggs.
India is the largest milk producer of the world, accounting for 16.43 percent of the global milk production. It also accounts for 4.95 percent of the world’s egg production. Total Livestock population in the Country is 512.05 million numbers. India, has the largest population of milch animals in the world, comprising of 190.9 million cows, 108.7 million buffaloes, 135 million goats and 65 million sheep in 2012. The major items of export include sheep/goat meat, buffalo meat, poultry products, dairy products, animal casing, natural honey, processed and other kinds of meat.
Animal Husbandry also plays an important role in Madhya Pradesh also as it provides additional source of income to the farmers. The number of livestock as well as the production of animal products has seen an increase over the years in the state. In 2003, the total livestock (which includes cattle, buffaloes, horses, ponies, donkeys, sheep, goat, camel, pigs and mules) was nearly 3.56 crores. By 2012, the number grew to 3.63 crores.
Animals provide twin benefits as they played an important role in agriculture as well as provides various products, which is the additional source of the farmers. Not only do they provide us with food and fibre, but they also help to recycle nutrients and add to soil fertility. They are also the prime source of animal proteins for the rural masses. Livestock products are important contributors to total food production.
Even the production of milk increased from 63.75 lakh MT in 2006-07 to 107.79 lakh MT in 2014-15. Madhya Pradesh stood at seventh position in milk production in India during the period from 2004-05 to 2011-12. However, it surpasses Maharashtra in 2012-13 and became sixth milk producer state in the country. In 2014-15, the state has now achieved fourth rank by leaving behind Andhra Pradesh and Punjab.
In spite of population growth in the State, Madhya Pradesh has performed well in terms of per capita per day. Milk availability in Madhya Pradesh was 233 gram per capita per day, during year 2005 which has increased to 383 gram per capita per day in year 2015. At present, per capita per day milk availability in Madhya Pradesh is more than the recommendation of Indian Medical Research Council of 280gm per capita per day and also the national average of 315 gms.
The Cooperative Dairy structure has played the role in the development of the sector in Madhya Pradesh. It has been an important participant in the rural development programme initiated by the Government. The apex federation (MPCDF) with its 5 regional Milk Unions located in Bhopal, Gwalior, Indore, Jabalpur and Ujjain is procuring 9.3 lakh kgs of milk per day from its 2.4 lakh members. These members are associated with 6219 dairy cooperatives and were paid Rs 637.54 crores in 2015-16 (till November 2015).
Eggs and Meat production
Meat production increased from 20 thousand tonnes in 2006-07 to 60 thousand tonnes in 2014-15.
Egg production rose from 9518 lakhs in 2006-07 to 11776 lakhs in 2014-15. Such a phenomenal rise also requires an enlargement of the storage capacity for such products, so as to minimize wastage and damage.
After milk production, poultry sector is vital in animal husbandry. Self-help groups plays an important role in seeded poultry development in Betul district of Madhya Pradesh, for the purpose of livelihood promotion, to combat the problems of growing migration, food insecurity and poor cultivation. One such cooperative is Kesla Poultry Cooperative Society (KPCS). It is a cooperative consisting of Dalit and Adivasi families in Sukhtawa. By 1999-00, 50-60 women had become a part of it. The number of registered cooperatives has increased to nearly 300 by 2001. The number of women in KPCS also increased to nearly 1030 women.
The number of birds reared by them went up to approximately 1000, leading to an income anywhere between Rs 30,000 to Rs. 1 lakh per family. KCPS provides these families with basic training, inputs, medicines, feed, etc. Nearly 5-6 batches of poultry birds are reared per year. Under the Integrated Tribal Development Plan, grant is provided to rural families for poultry, under various schemes. Attempts have also been made to attract foreign funding for the purpose of loans.
In 2014-15, KPCS produced 2.50 lakh birds per month. KPCS sells its produce under the brand name Sukhtawa Chicken. Sukhtawa Chicken has 10-15 outlets across Madhya Pradesh. 10-12 wholesalers collect the produce form the villages and supply it to Itarsi, Bhopal, Nagpur, Vidisha, Sarani and Betul.
The cooperative has managed to provide 200 man-days of work per year to the rural families. A significant feature of KPCS is that it produces its own feed through its semi-automatic feed plant. Maize, Soya DOC, concentrate, medicines etc. are required as inputs. Nearly 300 tonnes of maize and 100 tonnes of Soya DOC are required every month. The plant has a production capacity of 6-7 tonnes/hour. Many of the other cooperative societies have their own feed plants as well. Nearly 10 such cooperatives are operational across Madhya Pradesh, involving approximately 5,000 women and with a production of nearly 12 lakh birds per month. Some of the cooperatives are operating in the districts of Tikamgarh, Chhatarpur, Sagar, Hoshangabad, etc.
Poultry production in Madhya Pradesh got an impetus with the establishment of the Madhya Pradesh Women Poultry Producer Company. It is a federation of 10 cooperative societies, headquartered in Bhopal. Its activities include the procurement of raw materials, rate negotiation, quarterly audits, training and capacity building of the women and support staff and dealing with matters of concentrate preparation.
Various key challenges in the poultry sector are:
Investments :Poultry is a capital-intensive enterprise and requires an initial investment of Rs. 1 to 1.5 lakhs per family. Additionally, setting up of cooperatives is even more challenging because every cooperative has approximately 300 members. Thus, the issue of huge investments needs attention.
Poultry marketing is highly competitive and volatile.
Linkages :Strong backward linkages (in the form of feed plants, hatcheries, etc.) need to be focused on, in order to bring down the costs.
Forward linkages are extremely limited and need to be explored, for better marketing and promotion.
Once formed, the cooperatives do not receive adequate attention from the government. Thus, a more proactive role on the part of the government is essential for poultry cooperatives to thrive.
At present, the involvement of private companies in the poultry industry leads to greater exploitation of rural families. Therefore, a regulatory framework needs to be put in place. Poultry sheds are often at the mercy of nature and natural calamities (like the storm in 2013) can play havoc with poultry sheds. Thus, adequate insurance cover needs to be made available.
Animal health is a crucial element in determining productivity of the livestock and production of livestock products. Supporting role of veterinary institutions and farm infrastructure is vital in this regard. The treatment of animals has increased by 92 percent between 2010-11 and 2014-14, while medicine distribution has increased by 81 percent and immunization by 62 percent.
Artificial inseminations in the state have increased 2.6 times between 2010-11 and 2014-15, calf production by artificial insemination has increased 1.8 times, natural insemination has doubled, calf production by natural insemination has almost tripled and sterilization has increased 1.8 times.
Proportion of animal health services coverage through establishment of new Medical Institutions, up gradation of old institutions, using new technology i.e. E-Vet project has increased from 42% in 2005 to 63% in 2015. This has resulted in increase in animals that are treated from 38.53 lakhs in 2005 to 96.88 lakhs in 2015. Similarly, vaccination of animals increases from 70.79 lakhs in 2005 to 207.08 lakhs in 2015.
The State is strengthening and expanding breed improvement and animal breeding programme. The artificial insemination coverage has increased from 24% in 2005 to 52.37% in 2015. It was achieved through additional veterinary institutes, private AI workers, Integrated Livestock Development Centres in the state. Increase in artificial insemination services has resulted in increase of AI from 4.73 lakh in 2005 to 23.87 lakh in 2015.
Animal husbandry has played an important role in the socio-economic development of Madhya Pradesh. During the last four years, the state government has taken steps to augment both animal wealth and production. Economic vistas have been opened for beneficiaries through introduction of job-oriented programmes based on animal wealth. This has been possible due to the fact that the state government has launched innovative programmes to ensure health of animals, their augmentation, hybrid procreation and improvement in animal breeds.
For ensuring animals’ heath, improvement in breeds and increase in animal production, 565 veterinary hospitals, 1742 veterinary dispensaries, 27 ambulatory clinics, 38 mobile units, 22 veterinary research labs and Bio-product Institute, Mhow are doing the work of treatment, medicine distribution, collection of specimen and vaccination. Veterinary treatment is not confined only to hospitals and dispensaries, but for this purpose cams are also organized on regular basis.
The number of deliveries resulting from artificial conception during 10th five year plan and 11th five year plan has increased to unprecedented levels and thus increased the growth of the sector. Ambitious Nandishala Yojana was launched with a view to conserving and augmenting categorized/non-categorized animals of bovine species. Contract Service Regulation-2007 was framed to fill the vacant posts of assistant veterinary surgeons . During the last decade Gaupalan Evam Pashu Samvardhan Board (Cow-rearing and Animal Augmentation Board) registered 473 Gaushalas. The Board organized regular seminars on cow-science, bio-farming and Panchgavya where country’s top scientists, researchers and experts presented latest information about methods of conserving bovine species and their conservation, bio-farming and Panchgavya.
The present government came with an important strategy for the next year for animal conservation, augmentation and production. After 1955-56 it was for the first time that a veterinary college was opened at Rewa. Under the new strategy, 13 new veterinary dispensaries are being established and 24 existing ones are being improved while 45 veterinary institutions are being strengthened in the state during 2007-08. Bio-products Institute, Mhow would be modernized and improved according to norms set by GMP and GLP.
Installation of Electronic FAT Testing Appliances at the milk collection cooperatives ihas been done whose daily collection is more than 100 litres. Bulk Milk Coolers would be established in large numbers at Tehsil level for providing milk refrigeration facility to milk producers and collectors. Fair price would be ensured to milk producers and collectors. Purchase rate would be increased by 10 percent in comparison to last year and Animal Feed Plant would be established to ensure easy supply of fodder to milk producers.
The state government has implemented all these schemes keeping milk producers’ interest in mind. Top priority is being given to payments to them. Due to good milk collection during summer, the state did not import milk from other states. This is very significant due to the fact that milk was being imported to the state in summer season for the past many years.MPPCS Notes brings Prelims and Mains programs for MPPCS Prelims and MPPCS Mains Exam preparation. Various Programs initiated by MPPCS Notes are as follows:-
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