Structure of atom

Atomic Structure In 1897 J.J. Thomson discovered electron as a constituent of atom. He determined that an electron had a negative charge and had very little mass as compared to that of the atom. Since an atom was found to be electrically neutral it was inferred that some source of positive charge must be present … Read more

Chemical Reaction

The rate of a chemical reaction can be defined as the amount of the reaction which occurs in unit time. The rate of a reaction is measured by choosing certain properties of the reaction which will indicate how far the reaction has gone, and whose magnitude can be observed with time without disturbing the reaction. … Read more


Newton’s law of universal gravitation states that a particle attracts every other particle in the universe using a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers. Gravitation Gravitation is the force by which every mass or particle of matter, including … Read more

Motions, Force, Laws of Motion

Motion Motion is a change in position of an object with respect to time. Motion is typically described in terms of displacement, distance, velocity, acceleration, time and speed. The branch of physics which deals with the study of motion of material objects is called mechanics. Mechanics is divided into following branches. (i) Statics : Statics … Read more

Work and Energy

Work energy and power Work is said to be done when a force applied on the body displaces the body through a certain distance in the direction of force.Mathematically, work is the force-displacement product (for those of you who prefer algebra) W = F x s cos a or the force-displacement path integral (for those … Read more

Electricity and Magnetism

Current Electricity Electric current is the rate of flow of electric charge through a conducting medium with respect to time. It is caused by drift of free electrons through a conductor to a particular direction.Charges in motion constitute an electric current. Such currents occur naturally in many situations. Lightning is one such phenomenon in which … Read more


The discount is referred to the reduction in the price of some commodity or service. It may anywhere appear in the distribution channel in the form of modifications in marked price (printed on the item) or in retail price (set by retailer usually by pasting a sticker on the item) or in list price (quoted for the buyer). The discount is provided for the … Read more


Nanotechnology relates to the technology of rearranging and processing of atoms and molecules to fabricate material to Nano specifications such as nano meters, the technology will enable scientist and engineers to see and manipulate matter at the molecular level atom by atom create new structure with fundamentally new molecular organic material and exploit the novel … Read more

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