Scheduled Tribe of Madhya Pradesh
- Based on 2011 Census total popultaion of India is 121.08 Crore out of which ST population is 10.45 Crore (8.6%) .
- The tribal communities in India are enormously diverse and heterogeneous. There are wide ranging diversities among them in respect of languages spoken, size of population and mode of livelihood.
- The number of communities that find their place in the list of the Schedule of the Indian constitution is reflective of this diversity. The Government of India, in its Draft National Tribal Policy, 2006 records 698 Scheduled Tribes in India.
- As per the Census of India 2011, the number of individual groups notified as Scheduled Tribes is 705.
- Tribes of Madhya Pradesh have preserved their culture and tradition despite outside cultural influence. Their culture is distinguished by the composite remains of the Scythian and Dravidian culture.
- The prevalent religion of the tribes of Madhya Pradesh is
- The tribes of Madhya Pradesh live in the primitive stage and far away from the main stream of the development. Mostly, they live in the forests and are fully dependent on the forest products, herbs, wood, etc. for their livelihood.
- The tribal population of Madhya Pradesh has carried on the practice of farming and cultivation.
- In order to supplement their income, some of these tribal groups become labourers in factories, industries
- In According to 2011 Census and Ministry of Tribal Affiars Reports the Tribal Polpulation of MP
|Total Population of MP|
|Total Population of ST in MP|
|Percentage of ST population in MP|
|% STs in the State to total ST population in India|
|Sex Ratio in STs (Gender Composition of Scheduled Tribe Population)||984|
|Literacy Rates of ST Population in State||73.6%|
Total Scheduled Tribes in MP that included in Constiturional List of Scheduled tribe by Government of India through President order with Name like
- Bharia Bhumia, Bhuinhar Bhumia, Bhumiya, Bharia, Paliha, Pando
- Bhil, Bhilala, Barela, Patelia
- Bhil Mina
- Biar, Biyar
- Birhul, Birhor
- Damor, Damaria
- Gadaba, Gadba
- Gond; Arakh, Arrakh, Agaria, Asur, Badi Maria, Bada Maria, Bhatola, Bhimma, Bhuta, Koliabhuta, Koliabhuti, Bhar, Bisonhorn Maria, Chota Maria, Dandami Maria, Dhuru, Dhurwa, Dhoba, Dhulia, Dorla, Gaiki, Gatta, Gatti, Gaita, Gond Gowari, Hill Maria, Kandra, Kalanga, Khatola, Koitar, Koya, Khirwar, Khirwara, Kucha Maria, Kuchaki Maria, Madia, Maria, Mana, Mannewar, Moghya, Mogia, Monghya, Mudia, Muria, Nagarchi, Nagwanshi, Ojha, Raj, Sonjhari Jhareka, Thatia, Thotya, Wade Maria, Vade Maria, Daroi
- Halba, Halbi
- Kawar, Kanwar, Kaur, Cherwa, Rathia, Tanwar, Chattri
- Khairwar, Kondar
- Kondh, Khond, Kandh
- Korku, Bopchi, Mouasi, Nihal, Nahul Bondhi, Bondeya
- Korwa, Kodaku
- Nagesia, Nagasia
- Oraon, Dhanka, Dhangad
- Panika [in (i) Chhatarpur, Panna, Rewa, Satna, Shahdol, Umaria, Sidhi and Tikamgarh districts, and (ii) Sevda and Datia Tahsils of Datia district]
- Pardhan, Pathari, Saroti
- Pardhi, Bahelia, Bahellia, Chita Pardhi, Langoli Pardhi, Phans
- Pardhi, Shikari, Takankar, Takia [In (i) Chhindwara, Mandla, Dindori and Seoni districts, (ii) Baihar Tahsil of Balaghat District, (iii) Betul, Bhainsdehi and Shahpur tahsils of Betul district, (iv) Patan tahsil and Sihora and Majholi blocks of Jabalpur district, (v) Katni (Murwara) and Vijaya Raghogarh tahsils and Bahoriband and Dhemerkheda blocks of Katni district, (vi) Hoshang abad , Babai, Sohagpur, Pipariya and Bankhedi tah sils and Kesla block of Hoshangabad district, (vii) Narsinghpur district, and (viii)Harsud Tahsil of Khandwa district]
- Sahariya, Saharia, Seharia, Sehria, Sosia, Sor
- Saonta, Saunta
- Sawar, Sawara
State List of the Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups
PVTGs, currently including 75 tribal groups, have been identified as such on the basis of the following criteria:
- forest-dependent livelihoods,
- pre-agricultural level of existence,
- stagnant or declining population,
- low literacy rates
- a subsistence-based economy.
PVTGs Group of MP includes Abhujh, Marias,Baigas, bharias, Birhor, Hill Korbas, Kamars, Sahariyas.
States List of Scheduled Areas
- The Fifth Schedule (Aarticle 244(1)) contains provisions relating to the administration of Scheduled Areas other than in Northeast India.
- First, areas can be designated Scheduled Areas on the order of the President, who can similarly declare that certain parts of/entire Scheduled Areas cease to be such.
- Second, the Governor of each State having Scheduled Areas shall annually, or whenever required by the President of India, submit a report to the President regarding the administration of Scheduled Areas.
- Currently, certain parts of nine States of the country are covered by the Fifth Schedule.
- The list of Scheduled Areas of MP is as follows:
- East Nimar (khandwa),
- Sailana tehsil in Ratlam district,
Major Tribal Group of MP
Agaria Tribe, Madhya Pradesh
- Agaria Tribe is a small Dravidian caste mainly residing in several parts of Madhya Pradesh.
- Agaria tribal people follow their traditional occupation of iron smelting.
- Agaria tribe is residing in various regions of central India, mainly Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and some parts of Maharashtra. As per surveys the Agaria tribal communities are widely spread out in different districts of central India including Mandla district, Raipur district, and Bilaspur district. Further, similar Dravidian castes of Agaria tribe are found in parts of Mirzapur.
- History of Agaria Tribe -The history of the origin of the Agaria tribal community is quite interesting. The name Agaria has been derived from the Hindu god of fire, namely Lord Agni. Some historians also claimed that the name originated from the demon that was believed to be originated from the flames of fire. The name of that demon of tribal community is Agyasur.
- Although they do not form a homogenous group, most of them primitively belong to Dravidian speaking group.
- Agaria tribes have been branched into various sub castes, Lohar castes too fall amongst them. Others include Sonureni, Dhurua, Tekam, Markam, Uika, Purtai, Marai etc. The names of these exogamous groups are same as that of the Gond tribes. The names of these groups have been taken from the names of animals, plants and other objects of nature.
- In their societies, marriage within the same sub-caste is prohibited.
- Main languages that they speak, for obvious reason, also have originated from the famous Dravidian tribal language group.
- Agaria tribe has two endogamous divisions namely the Patharia Agaria and Khuntia Agaria.
- As far as lifestyle of Agaria community is concerned, the society follows the patrilineal rule. The father usually arranges marriages. In Agaria tribal communities, the marriage proposal is first send by the boy’s father to the girl’s house. If the girl’s father accepts the marriage proposal then the boy’s father visits their home where he is given a warm welcome.
- Widow re-marriage is allowed. Late husband’s younger brother, particularly if he is a bachelor is considered as the most eligible one for second marriage.
- Divorce is permissible for either party on grounds of adultery, extravagance, or mistreatment. Several birth and death rites are followed in their society.
- Culture of Agaria Tribe -Festivals of an Agaria society are truly colourful, bearing the tradition of their own religion. Their ancestral god is Dulha Deo, and during festivals the Agaria community sacrifices various animals like goat, fowl etc. They also worship the forest Gond deity, Bura Deo and also the demon Lohasur, is the revered deity, whom they believe dwells the smelting kiln.
Bharia Tribe, Madhya Pradesh
- Bharia Tribe is one of the significant tribal groups of Madhya Pradesh. Major concentration of Bharia tribal community is in the Patalkot valley of this state.
- Bharia Tribe is a Dravidian tribe.. The name ‘Bhumia’, meaning Lord of the soil, is another name for this tribal group. Some of the tribal communities of the Indian subcontinent also identify Bharia Tribe as ‘Bharia Bhumia’. Bhumia refers to priest of the village Gods and is thus considered as a very respectable designation for the people of this tribe.
- Bharia Tribe is further categorized into clans like Thakaria, Angaria, Bapothia, Bhardia, Bijaraia, Mehania, Amolia, Papchalia, Nahal, Raotia and Gadaria.
- They belong from the phylum of Bhar tribe. Eminent anthropologists have conducted numerous researches on the lives of this Bharia tribal community and have revealed that this tribe is one of the indigenous tribes of the region.
- Their main concentration is at the Patalkot valley in the Chhidwara district. Apart from this, Jabalpur district and its adjoining regions of the state are also inhabited by the people of Bharia Tribe..
- Occupation of Bharia Tribe – Following the tradition of most of the tribal communities of the Indian subcontinent, the Bharia Tribe has adapted to the profession of cultivation. Mainly, shifting cultivation is practiced by them in order to sustain their livelihood. Many people of this tribe also collect various forest products like tubers, roots and fruits to meet the demands of their daily survival.
- The region where this tribe dwells is quite rich in medicinal plants and the tribal people possess a deep knowledge about them. The people of Bharia Tribe have also set up their own treatment centres where they use herbal therapies for treating various heath hazards and ailments. ‘Bhagat’ is the name given to the herbal healers of this tribe.
- The cultural exuberance of the Bharia Tribe has been prominently reflected in all its socio-cultural elements such as festivals, songs and dances.
- Their societal structure is nuclear and about 78 percent of the Bharia households have nuclear families.
- Their tribal language like Dravidian tribal Language is known as Bharia. The Bharia tribal community lives in beautiful houses built by their own hands.
- Anthropologists of the Indian subcontinent have enumerated that most of these people pay least attention to education and learning. The literacy rate of Bharia Tribe is hence very low.
- They have a number of exogamous groups. The nuptial rituals of this tribe also have typical attributes and the marriage proposal always first comes from the boy’s side. Bharia people also follow several birth and funeral rites. They have a Panchayat for the maintenance of law and order in their community.
- Religions of Bharia Tribe –People of Bharia Tribe are highly religious by nature and worship several Hindu deities. They celebrate festivals like Shivratri, Diwali, Holi, Akhati and many more. Most of the people have adapted to Hinduism. Like most other tribal communities, the Bharia Tribe is also greatly inclined towards religion and spiritualism.
Binjhwar Tribe, Madhya Pradesh
- Binjhwar tribe is considered as a civilised Dravidian tribe or a caste formed out of a tribal group. They are mainly found in regions of central India like Raipur and Bilaspur and other adjoining areas.
- Madhya Pradesh is an abode of Binjhwar tribes who throng various places of the south eastern region of this state including Bastar district. Due to the fact that the Binjhwar residing region of the state is mainly covered with the forests, these Binjhwar tribes have adopted the occupations like collection of forest products and also several minerals. These tribes are wholly unaware of the external world and are quite contented with their individual traditions and ethnic beliefs. Binjhwars are an offshoot of the prehistoric Baiga tribe of Mandla District and Balaghat.
- Binjhwar tribe has four major sub-divisions, the Binjhwars proper, the Sonjharas, the Birjhias and the Binjhias.
- The tribe also has certain exogamous divisions. The names of these exogamous sects are of diverse and combined character. Some of the names are Bagh, a tiger; Panknali, the water-crow; Kamalia, the lotus flower; Pod, a buffalo; Tar, the date-palm; Jal, a net, and others. The sept names differ as per different localities.
- In case of marriages, girls are allowed to choose their husbands. Marriage ceremonies are usually held at bridegroom’s place. They also allow divorce. In their societies, they usually bury the dead. The Binjhwar people are very religious and they worship some local deities of Chhattisgarh region.
- Tribe Festivals, dance, music form an integral part of these Binjhwar tribal community, thus ennobling it to a great extent. In fact, their desi art, shrines and statuettes have got popularity in the whole of the Indian subcontinent.
- The Binjhwar tribes too have developed faith for religion and spiritualism. To appease the divine gods, the Binjhwar tribes carry on various rituals and customs
- Fairs and festivals are an integral part of the culture of the people of this Binjhwar tribe. A huge three-day long fair is organised during the month of March. It has been consecrated to the deity Aanga Devta. Apart from this, these Binjhwar tribes also revere the Hindu god, Lord Ganesha.
- The major occupation of the Binjhwar tribes is Some of the Binjhwar tribes have taken up handicraft as their occupation. In fact the Binjhwar artists prepare handicraft items from bamboo, wood and a variety of metals. For selling in the fairs, these Binjhwar tribes also made beautiful baskets, statues, mats, wall hangings, face masks. Binjhwar tribal community is also acknowledged for its terracotta work.
- Melodious music and dance are a vital part of the Binjhwar tribal community. The dance and music of people is of numerous varieties. The whole of the region quite often bounces and reverberates with the beats of the drum of this Binjhwar tribal community.
- The culture of Binjhwar tribal community is considered to be enriched without exotic culinary dishes that the tribal communities prepare. So these Binjhwar tribes are also not an exception.
Boneya Tribe , Madhya Pradesh
- Bonya tribes also known as Korku can be mainly found at the Southern part of the state, Madhya Pradesh.
- There are quite a number of the anthropologists and historians who also like to call these Boneya tribes in another name called Korku.
- Major concentration are found in the southern parts of the state including southern Betul District, north of the city of Betul, Hoshangabad District, East Nimar or Khandwa District.
- The occupations of these Boneya tribes have taken up hunting, farming and also work as laborers in the fields. Gathering forest products also is one of the chief occupations of this Boneya tribal community.
- Another significant feature of this Boneya tribal community is that they converse with each other in the beautiful language of the same name, which belongs to the famous Austro- Asiatic language family. It is also popular amongst quite a number of people in their alternative names like Bondeya, Bopchi, Korki, Kurku, Kuri, Ramekhera, Kurku-Ruma etc.
- Not only the language, these Boneya tribes also converse using its variants like Bouriya, Bondoy, Ruma, Mawasi (Muwasi, Muasi). Nowadays, many Boneya tribes are there who speak in Maarthi and also in Hindi language.
Damaria Tribes , Madhya Pradesh
- The origin of this Damaria tribal community has got a rich history to bank upon. The Damaria tribes can be linked to the Rajputs. The popular saying of the Damaria tribal society is that there was a king of Rajput who actually belongs to this Damaria tribal community. Also, some people love to link up these Damaria tribes with another famous tribes of the Indian subcontinent, namely Bhill tribes, who mainly resided in the adjoining areas of Rajasthan and also Madhya Pradesh.
- Damaria tribal communities use the wonderful dialect of Vagadi. This Vagadi has got local origination.
- It can be segregated into two exogamous groups. These include Upper Damor and Lower Damor, each regarding themselves advanced and have their individual clans namely Parmar, Sisodia, Rathor, Chauhan, Solanki etc.
- The cultural exuberance is rightly being in several of its aspects like house settlements, clothing etc.
- Damaria tribal community, follow the norms of patriarchy. Patrilineal, patrilocal and kin based rules are practiced. They by and large reside in the ‘nuclear and monogamous families’.
- Marriage also is an important institution of the Damaria tribal society. Child marriage is also permitted. There are numerous instances where the Damaria tribes practice child levirate, child sororate, Polygamy are permitted in the Damaria society. The match is fixed through conciliation between both the families. As part of the marriage ritual, bride price is a must. It is also called
- Although divorce is allowed in the Damaria society, ‘compensation’ is to be paid. Other customs like widow, divorce, remarriages are acceptable. Closely linked to marriages, there are also important rituals that are prevalent. The Suraj puja, mundan, sagai, shadi bhoj are some of these rituals .
- Apart from marriages, there are few rituals that are associated with death ceremony. The dead body is cremated. However, this Damaria tribal community buries the dead bodies of the children.
- These Damaria tribes have got ardent faith on the religion and its related practices. Since the Bhagat Movement, most of these Damaria tribes have adapted to Hinduism as their main religion. These Damaria revere a plethora of Hindu gods and goddesses. These include Mahadeo, Ganesh, Ram, Krishna, Ranchhod, Ganga Mata, Kalika Mata, Khalri Mata, Phula Mata
- Fairs and festivals form an integral part of the Damaria tribal society. Dipawali, Holi, Rakshabandhan, Navratri are chief festivals. They take part in fairs, namely, Jhela-Bavaji ka Mela, Rewadi ka Mela, Amli ka Mela, Navratri ka Mela.
- The non-vegetarian items include fish, meat, chicken, flesh of wild animals and birds. They devour ‘home brewed mahudi’ and also mutton. During marriage ceremony, Mitha dalia of wheat, rice and dal are dished out.
- That these Damaria tribes are no less in producing artistic exuberances as highlighted in its numerous art and craft products
- No festival of the Damaria tribal community is feted without dancing and singing that adds fervor to the whole of the festive mood. Mewari and Vagri folk songs are some of the beautiful songs that are sung at the time of Holi, festival of colors. Also quite a handful of Damaria tribes fete Garba dance during Navratri festival.
- For better controlling and administration, these Damaria tribal community set up the conventional panchayat system. These are held at clan and village level. The chief of the panchayat is called Mukhia or patel.
- In order to sustain their livelihood, these Damaria tribes have adapted the occupation of cultivation. These Damaria tribes also work as wage earner. The Damaria tribes have taken up to the development programs and utilize variety of agricultural inputs such as plough, water pumps, threshers, and chemical fertilizers. Today, few of the Damaria tribes have also employed in ‘white-collar’ jobs and are leading an up to date, urbane life.
Dhanwar Tribe ,Madhya Pradesh
- Dhanwar Tribe is a small and primitive tribe of Madhya Pradesh. Dhanwar Tribes are basically followers of Hinduism and they are engaged in different occupations.
- Dhanwar tribe is a primitive tribe residing in Bilaspur zamindari estates. Dhanwar tribes of Madhya Pradesh are also known as Dhanuwar, which signifies bows and arrows.
- The name of the tribe has been derived from the term Dhanuhar, meaning a bowman. The name is similar to those of Dhangar, or labourer, and Kisan, or cultivator. These names are also applied to Oraon tribe and Halba tribe. The Dhanwars are not associated with the Dhanuks, although the names have same meaning.
- Apart from Madhya Pradesh, the people of this tribal group are also scattered in and around some parts of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh.
- Regarding the origin of Dhanwar tribe, it is said that they are probably an offshoot of either Kawar tribe or Gond tribeor probably a mixture of both these tribes.
- Dhanwar tribe has no endogamous divisions. However, they are divided into several totemistic exogamous sects. Many of these sects are named after different plants or animals. Members of the sects abstain from killing or harming the animal or the plant after which it has been named.
- In Dhanwar society, marriages within the same sect and between the first cousins are prohibited. Usually, the father of the boy takes the initiative and looks out for a suitable match for his son.
- They allow widow remarriage and divorce. Dhanwar tribes usually bury their dead.
- Dhanwars are religious people and they principal deities of this tribal group are Thakur Deo (god of agriculture) and Dulha Deo (god of family and hearth).
- Dhanwar tribes are adept at professions like hunting. Also due to their stay in the forest fringes, quite a handful of these Dhanwar tribes also have taken up profession of gathering forest products like fruits, root vegetables
- In the earlier times, these Dhanwar tribes are cattle rearers and lead lives of that of typical nomads. However, these days these Dhanwar tribes like to live a more settled life. Maximum of these Dhanwar tribes reside in small hamlets. Some of the people of Dhanwar group have developed their own indigenous industries. The chief products of their cotton industries include bamboo mats and large baskets.
- The people of this tribal group are the ardent followers of Hinduism. Tattooing is an important part of their culture. Women get tattooed at their parent’s place.
- In their community, new born babies are named on the sixth day after birth. Like the Kawars, the Dhanwars too do not have a language of their own. The name of their tribal dialect is called Dhanwar and apart from this language the tribal folks are also fluent in Chhattisgarhi language and Marathi language
Kawar Tribe , Madhya Pradesh
- Some of the anthropologists even have traced out the origin of these Kawar tribes, which is quite significant. The popular legend that is popular in the whole of the state of Madhya Pradesh, narrates that these Kawar tribes have descended from the family line of the Kaurava kings of the Mahabharat.
- As far as occupations are concerned, these Kawar tribes have adapted to the occupation of cultivation and farming. Just like many other tribal communities, education and academics have always taken back seats.
- It is quite interesting to mention that in spite of their lack of educational opportunities, these Kawar tribes are no less important in their culture and tradition.
- The culture of these Kawar tribes is quite ennobled and exuberant.
- In order to carry on conversation amongst themselves, maximum of these Kawar tribal community, converse with each other in the wonderful language which is known as
- This language of the Kawari tribes belongs to the famous Indo-Aryan language family. There are quite a number of people of Indian Territory who believe that it is a dialect of Halbi.
Kharwar Tribe , Madhya Pradesh
- Kharwar tribal community of the Gujarat state has a belonging to the family of Dravidian
- Some of the anthropologists also have traced the etymological significance of the term Kharwar itself. It signifies the grass..
- There are quite a number of scholars who have put forwards their opinions and views about the origination of these Kharwar tribal community. These Kharwar tribes belong to the family of Dravidians.
- Some of the Kharwar tribes explain that these Kharwar tribes belong to the family of the “Suryavanshi” Rajputs. So much so, these Kharwar tribes claim that the famous king Raja Harishchandra is an ancestor of this tribal community.
- As far as the nature and habits of these Kharwar tribes are concerned, these Kharwar tribes are quite introvert and shy. They always remain aloof from the external influences of the modern society.
- What is also to note that these Kharwar tribes, unlike most of the tribal communities, do not have the language of their own. These Kharwar tribes are also quite backward in certain areas like education etc.
- In order to sustain their livelihood, these Kharwar tribes have adapted to the occupation of farming and agriculture.
Kolam Tribe ,Madhya Pradesh
- Kolam tribes of Madhya Pradesh are also identified in different names like Kolamboli, Kulme and Kolmi.
- The main concentration of this tribe is on the plains and mountainous region. These tribal groups are reckoned as scheduled tribes and apart from Madhya Pradesh, they reside in some parts of Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh.
- The Kolam people are divided in different clans like Chal Deve, Pach Deve, Saha Deve, and Sat Deve.
- Marriages between the same clans are not permissible.
- The Kolams use the name of their clans as their surnames.
- Some of the clans of this tribal community are Bhurchi, Lakhu, Vadang, Aanzi, Konde, Shilekar, Kodape, Bode, Rampure
- Due to close affinity with the Gond tribes, the culture of the Kolam tribes resembles with them in the fields of rituals and ceremonies.
- The people of this community take up agriculture as their major occupation. Some of them are also engaged in forest works, hunting, making wooden articles
- Kolam tribal community uses the beautiful language of Kolami. This language belongs to the famous Dravidian language family..
- Some of the members of this Kolam tribal community are also there who work as laborers in lieu of daily wages. Other occupations include animal husbandry, hunting and also food gathering. The Kolam food gatherers mainly produce various producers from the forest areas and also sell them in the markets. The villages of these Kolam tribes are known as ‘pod’ which is well planed and a Chavdi is located at the centre of the ‘pod’. A village goddess is established in front of the Chavdi.
- The Kolma society is It mainly follows the patriarchal norms. Amongst these Kolma tribes, there has been an increasing trend to follow the nuclear family organization.
- Dowry system is prevalent, though there has been increasing trend to adapt to the practice of paying bride price amongst the Kolam tribes.
- The Kolams are the believers of animism and they also believe in nature. They worship different objects of nature and their ancestors. A number of tribal and Hindu gods and goddesses are in the list of their religious deities..
- The Kolam people celebrate different rituals that include Matya or Churaghali, Bai-Baki, Sati, Jaitur Pooja, Waghai Pooja, Chait, Mohdombari, Bhimayak, Korod, Morang Dev pooja etc.
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